Geneticists from all over the world intend to carry out hundreds of thousands of genetic analyzes to find out what distinguishes the patients who evolve worse
Since the start of the pandemic, everyone has been wondering why the same virus causes such different reactions. While many people do not even know they are infected, others end up in the ICU, and thousands are dying. Some risk factors are clear: advanced age and suffering from other diseases mean that we buy more ballots to suffer a more serious version of Covid-19, but being young and healthy does not guarantee that we will get rid of it either.
Geneticists have thought that their specialty has a lot to contribute, that the different faces of the disease could be related to genetic variability between some individuals and others, as it is in other diseases. Could it be the same with the new coronavirus? To find out, experts have created The Covid-19 Host Genetics Initiative, an international platform to push forward studies on coronavirus patients and share the results. Knowing whether genes make a patient more vulnerable can be key in prognosis and treatment, and would end up saving many lives.
Of these, there will be 7,000 Spaniards and another 1,000 from the United Kingdom, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Colombia that will serve to identify whether the possible genetic markers found are characteristic of Spain or not. In principle, they will not study the complete genome of each individual but certain markers (what is technically called the ‘complete genome association study’ or GWAS). Later, they will sequence 300 complete genomes to analyze in detail the alterations found.
“When we talk about genes, one thinks of rare diseases or cancer, but all human pathologies are the result of the environment and of the person, and also in viral infections, genetics has a lot to say,” explains Pablo Lapunzina in statements to Teknautas. An individual’s genetic information “can make their response to an infection different and even prevent them from becoming infected.” The case of HIV is well known, especially since in November 2018 a Chinese scientist announced that he had genetically modified human embryos to make them resistant, which is why he was later convicted.
With respect to Covid-19, “we are facing a viral infection that should be banal because of every 100 people, close to 80% are asymptomatic, nor do they find out that they were sick, 10 or 15% feel greasy and only one 5% have a severe illness, so it is clear that the individual response is quite different, “says Pablo Lapunzina.
“Without a doubt, the genetic variants have to do with increased risks or protection against the disease, ” he says, although the answer will probably be very complex, the key will not be in a single gene. Many small differences may explain why some people who come in contact with the virus develop serious illness, while most have flu-like symptoms or not even that. “It is also quite likely that there will be people who will not directly become infected even if they are in contact with the virus because it cannot enter the cells, but this will be more difficult to prove,” he says.
As he explains, there is already some data that indicates that the European population could have a greater predisposition to be attacked by the virus, in particular, “variants in the ACE receptors of cells with respect to Asian populations.” The data says that mortality in China was very low compared to that recorded in Europe and, “apart from the fact that epidemiological policies to control the disease have been different, these receptors are likely to be decisive,” he says.
However, it will take hundreds of thousands of patients to confirm that these subtle genetic differences protect or make people more vulnerable. The international consortium aims to reach 150,000. The problem is to make a balanced and correct selection of the participants. “We need to have people who have been infected and have been asymptomatic, and this must be verified with antibody tests; also to others who have been regular, with fever and few more signs of illness, and others who, in the same situation, have been serious or have died, apparently without risk factors, “he explains.
The healthy young man who ends up in the ICU
All the projects included in The Covid-19 Host Genetics Initiative will provide minimal information that is useful for data sharing, but each one has its own particular characteristics. For example, another Spaniard focuses on patients under the age of 60 without other diseases. Led by the CSIC’s Barcelona Institute for Biomedical Research (IIBB), it will focus on 200 patients waiting to obtain more funding.
“We are interested in all patients, but obviously age and previous pathologies are more vulnerable even to the normal flu, so when doing a genetic study, they could lead us to confusion,” says Anna Planas, coordinator of this study. “In the normal population, there are polymorphisms or genetic variations that normally do not entail any pathology, but in the face of a viral infection, there may be people with a poorer response capacity and we can better identify this factor if we focus the study on people initially healthy ”, he highlights.
Already in the first coronavirus epidemic, the SARS epidemic of 2002-2003, some studies pointed out that having certain polymorphisms could increase the susceptibility to severe forms of the disease. However, they were performed with very few patients and almost primitive genetic tools compared to current means. “This encouraged us to think that with the advances of today, we could further explore this issue,” says the researcher.
In Granada, Marta Alarcón Riquelme, a scientist at the Center for Genomics and Oncology Research (Genyo), also wondered why young and middle-aged people developed bilateral pneumonia that characterizes the worst version of Covid-19 and, in particular, by that in the worst cases an inflammation occurs that complicates the condition of the patients.
The challenge of explaining decisive inflammation
In fact, physicians agree to observe a common characteristic among Covid-19 cases that have evolved poorly. Generally, in a first phase, patients have symptoms that could be assimilated to those of the flu, but after a few days, something goes wrong and the immune system overreacts, causing what is called a ‘cytokine storm’, proteins that they should fight the infection but in this case, they cause an inflammation of the organs, especially the lungs.
“We want to know if there is any type of predisposition that is not clinically evident, inflammatory processes that we can detect in DNA by looking for gene expression markers through what is called methylation, and identify possible genetic associations that tell us about a susceptibility to develop more severe disease, “says Marta Alarcón. For example, “I can have a gene with a variant that causes more cytokines to be produced, so the response is going to be greater.” Therefore, it is not about having or not having a gene, but about quantitative changes.
The key is to compare, among hospitalized patients, those who have a worse evolution with those who better overcome the disease. For this, the Genyo is already recruiting patients and the initial idea is to carry out the study with 1,300 participants, in collaboration with other geneticists from Valladolid, Barcelona, Malaga, and Milan.
Although within the international consortium ” 90% of the groups still do not have data “, because they are looking for patients who can participate, Alarcón regrets the bureaucratic obstacles that have prevented him from speeding up the process. “Unfortunately, I have a limit of 15,000 euros to buy material. From this figure, I have to open a public offer that may take a while and I cannot start at this time because we are with the administrative deadlines closed. ” Meanwhile, “in the United States, they are already ahead.”
The application of the results
With more or less Spanish input, experts are confident that the international consortium as a whole will provide decisive data to fight the new coronavirus and that the results can be applied on several fronts. For example, “if a person becomes ill, with a genetic study we would know in 24 hours if their risk is high or low, and based on that we could decide on their income, their follow-up or even analyze the risk that their relatives run”, Lapunzina comments.
On the other hand, genetic information can also be decisive in treatment. First, in the search for new compounds or drugs that are already on the market and can be reused. On the other, to guide the medication of each patient. In fact, something similar happened until recently with hepatitis C – before new treatments became available – patients’ genetic markers were studied to find out who would respond to available treatments. It was a simple study that cost 16 euros and anticipated the effect of the drugs.
“Today, a patient is admitted and ‘a priori’ it is not possible to know if after four days he will go home or have to be admitted to the ICU, there is nothing that can predict this, ” says Anna Planas. However, after these studies, “in an ideal situation, we would find a key gene and know that people who had some variants of it would be more likely to develop a more serious disease.” The reality will be more complicated, but the CSIC researcher believes that “a test could be carried out on the general population with a drop of blood”, knowing that “if a person has a certain polymorphism, he is part of the population that must be to protect”.
The researcher believes that this could also be revolutionary in relation to epidemiological policies. “At the moment, we are talking theoretically, but if we had the entire population studied, we would know what percentage is at risk,” he says. In this sense, it would be possible to develop an epidemiological strategy that would not go through “blind” confinement like the current one, since “we do not know which are the biomarkers that cause us to pass the infection asymptomatically and which are the ones that cause us to be at serious risk ”, but it could be done much more selectively.
However, not everything will be in the genes. For example, among the population differences, there is the fact that men accumulate many more serious cases and deaths. The researchers do not rule out that massive genetic analyzes give any answer, but they believe that it most likely has nothing to do with it. “There are many variables, men tend to be more overweight, hypertensive, and have diabetes. And surely there is a hormonal factor, it seems that women’s estrogens protect a little more. If you remove all those factors, it is likely that the genetic difference between men and women will not make much difference, “Lapunzina points out.
What should you watch out for in cold therapy?
Cold therapy is also called cryotherapy. And this therapy is an application of physical medicine. This cold therapy can be used both systematically and locally. It is always intended for therapeutic purposes. The main area of application is still to be used in traumatology. It has also become an integral part of rheumatology. Cold therapy can alleviate or prevent illness. The area of application with cold therapy is broad.
The aim of the application
Cold therapy always has one aim and that would be to remove the heat from the tissue to be treated. Muscular relaxation should also be achieved. Which then has the effect of taking the pain away.
The differences in application
there are basically two types of application of cold therapy. There is short-term use and long-term use. The various forms of therapy differ in very clear features. Of course, the effect also differs. The short-term application of cold therapy never lasts longer than 10-15 minutes. The result is that the blood flow to the deep and superficial muscles is locally reduced. After the cold is withdrawn again, the blood circulation is stimulated and strengthened and the tissue is warmed up. Long-term use takes between one and two hours. The cold therapy results in a significant reduction in body temperature. The blood circulation naturally also comes to a standstill. This application is usually used for inflammation.
In any case, the pain is completely eliminated. However, it must be taken into account that the bleeding will be inhibited. Blood pressure and heart rate will also clearly increase. As for cold therapy, it can be carried out in a variety of ways. In all applications, however, it is certain that the cold stimulus is present. As different as the methods are, as different are the temperatures of the refrigeration applications. The place of use and the duration of use can also differ greatly. It is important to ensure that only the affected area is exposed to the cold, and if ice packs are used, the area of the skin must be covered. The rest of the body is ideally wrapped up warm. This is the only way to avoid catching a cold or getting hypothermic.
8 reasons why cold therapy is good for you:
1. Cold therapy strengthens the immune system
Regular use of cold therapy can strengthen the immune system and prevent diseases. You can find more tips on how to strengthen your immune system.
2. It relieves pain
Studies show that cold therapy has a pain-relieving effect. A cold application is used in particular for chronic and inflammatory joint diseases.
3 For depression, cold therapy can improve the state of mind
The cold reduces the production of the stress hormone cortisol. This can have a positive effect on mild depression.
4 It promotes regeneration in athletes
Through the application of cold, the stressed muscles are supplied with more blood and can therefore regenerate more quickly. If you have sore muscles,
5 Cold helps you lose weight
Regular use can activate the brown fat cells in the body and thus burn them off. Have a look here if you want to know what exactly happens in the body when you lose weight.
6 Firms the connective tissue
Due to the improved blood circulation, the connective tissue can be tightened and a beautiful complexion is created.
7 Cold helps with insomnia
The reduced production of the stress hormone cortisol also has a positive effect on sleep. By the way.
8 Cold therapy increases general wellbeing
Whether it’s the adrenaline or the endorphins, the subsequent warmth that flows through the body, or simply the feeling of having overcome yourself – after just a few minutes you will feel good!
Is There Any Effect of Wedding Cake Strain
Despite its name, the Wedding Cake strain is not exactly a wedding cake, but rather earthy and sour. There is only a slight sweetness towards the end. Despite its deceiving name, the Wedding Cake strain is extremely potent, with THC levels around 27%.
As a guest at a wedding, your mind is firmly focused on the party, and you are thinking about guava cake and ice cream after the ceremony. It’s absolutely beautiful and all, but the initial union is so mind-numbing! The after-party may include marijuana, along with liberal amounts of alcohol, depending on who is getting married and what kind of guests are invited!
What Is the Wedding Cake Strain?
The Wedding Cake strain was created through a cross between Cherry Pie and Girl Scout Cookies (GSC). There are certain budsmen who believe it is actually a cross between Animal Mints and Triangle Kush. The strain was originally bred in Southern California. The breed was later brought to Colorado by a breeder called Kind Love. A variety of OG Kush bred by Darkheart Nursery, Skywalker strain is a cross between Mazar, Blueberry, and Blueberry. This strain was created from a clone that was developed by Dutch Passion Seeds. Skywalker OG strain features notes of citrus hops and spice. It induces mellow, euphoric effects and increases awareness and creativity.
Wedding Cake Aroma
Its alluring aroma is rewarded once you see past the earthy and doughy scent. Despite its backcrossed genetics, this strain retained the tart and sugary characteristics of its lineage.
Wedding Cake Flavor
When you smell this, you are surprised to find that the soil and sour flavors take over your taste buds. However, the sweetness comes through after a short time. To get the best flavor, we suggest using a vaporizer set to a low temperature.
Wedding Cake Appearance
The tops and sides of the calyxes are covered with trichomes. This weed has an aesthetic of sugar cookies with its pinkish-red and grape shades. There are many buds that look like teardrops. Wedding Cake is sometimes referred to as ‘Pink Cookie’ because of its pink color.
Wedding Cake Strain Grow Info
You cannot easily obtain Wedding Cake seeds. Due to the lack of growth information shared by its cultivators, growing this strain may require trial and error. Cuttings from female plants are best.
Allow a bit of humidity in the air with your fan and exhaust system. Flowering should occur between 7 and 9 weeks. Indoor yields range from 18-21 ounces per square meter.
When growing it outside, seek a warm, sunny, slightly humid climate. Use rich soil for growing. You should be able to harvest your crop by late September or mid-October. Outdoor Wedding Cake growers can expect a bounty of 21 ounces per plant.
THC Content – Highest Test
Wedding Cake has a reputation for being a powerhouse. These strains have been found to contain THC levels of 27%!
CBD Content – Highest Test
In general, Wedding Cake contains approximately 0.1% CBD, rarely over 0.23%. Therefore, it commonly has a THC: CBD ratio of around 250:1. Beta-caryophyllene, more commonly found in plants with high CBD content, also creates a similar effect to Harlequin. Since Wedding Cake terpenes stimulate CB2 receptors, this strain is excellent for medicinal use.
What Are Wedding Cake’s Likely Effects?
Earlier, we mentioned that Wedding Cake was a very potent strain. As such, it’s probably not the best choice for an after-wedding party toke – unless you intend to head home soon afterward.
You’ll probably feel mildly psychedelic, and you’ll see everything in high definition! Beginners might find this a bit disconcerting, but experienced cannabis consumers shouldn’t find it too confusing. Fortunately, this strain is an excellent option for feeling relaxed and calm.
The effect of Wedding Cake Strain is that while standing right in the middle of a crowd, you will feel more like a spectator rather than a participant.
Medical Benefits of the Wedding Cake Strain
The Wedding Cake strain is used by some cannabis consumers to manage anxiety and depression due to its uplifting effects.
There is a popular marijuana strain called Wedding Cake that is commonly prescribed for pain associated with musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis, sciatica, and fibromyalgia. As well as treating neurological conditions, the Wedding Cake strain is also used to relieve symptoms of Lou Gehrig’s disease.
Effects of the Wedding Cake Strain
The majority of high-THC strains can cause adverse side effects. The use of too much can lead to problems such as cottonmouth or red eyes. When suffering from predisposed anxiety or panic disorders, it can result in panic attacks in rare cases.
Final Thoughts on the Wedding Cake Strain
An intense strain, Wedding Cake can temporarily relieve pain, anxiety, and depression. You swear it tastes just like dabbing a concentrate! It has an extremely high level of THC! The strain is a relaxing smoke, but it may not be suitable for beginners or anyone who is sensitive to weed. Wedding Cakes with higher CBD content and lower THC levels are available. This may reduce the chance of experiencing side effects. Your mind will feel energized after using it, and you might break out into uncontrollable giggles. As a result of the relaxation, you may drift into a peaceful sleep.
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) treatment.
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome, also known by the acronym SBID, or SIBO, is a condition in which there is an overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine, reaching values similar to the number of bacteria present in the large intestine.
Although bacteria are important for the digestion of food and absorption of nutrients, when they are in excess they can cause intestinal problems, which result in symptoms such as excessive gas, constant feeling of a bloated stomach, abdominal pain, and constant diarrhea, for example. Also, altering nutrient absorption, in some people can result in malnutrition, even if the person is eating correctly.
This syndrome is curable and can be treated, in many cases, with changes in diet and lifestyle, but it can also include the use of antibiotics prescribed by the gastroenterologist after doing a SIBO test.
When several causes of gastrointestinal problems have been ruled out and a solution is found, the SIBO investigation must be carried out. Excess bacteria in the small intestine can lead to the release of hydrogen and methane gases, which can be identified through a breath test. This test is non-invasive and can be performed at home or in a doctor’s office. To take the exam, fasting is required. During the test, you will breathe into a tube. You will then drink a special sweet drink provided by your doctor. You will breathe into a series of additional tubes at regular intervals for 2-3 hours after drinking. If breath testing is not available, urinary metabolite tests can be performed or small bowel fluid samples can be collected for identification of bacteria.
How SIBO influences health status
Despite being a disorder that is not well understood and needs further study, it is known that it can occur when the small intestine has anatomical abnormalities, changes in pH, or poor muscle activity in its functions, which means that food and bacteria are not removed from the organ and consequently influence the immune system not to function properly.
SIBO symptoms are common to several gastrointestinal pathologies and can easily be confused with viral gastroenteritis or stomach disease, celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, hypochlorhydria, or low levels of stomach acid, gastroparesis, portal hypertension, or bowel syndrome is irritable. All have in common symptoms that mainly affect the intestine, such as stomach pain, especially after eating, bloating, cramps, diarrhea, constipation, indigestion, gas/flatulence, or regular feeling of fullness, but it can also lead to weight loss.
Some patients with SIBO have associated weight loss or deficiencies in various vitamins or minerals. This can lead to deficiency syndromes. Most patients with SIBO will need supplementation with vitamin B12, fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and magnesium. Lactase deficiency may be associated with SIBO due to mucosal inflammation of the brush boundary and therefore often prohibiting lactose-containing foods until the condition resolves. The low FODMAP diet, the specific carbohydrate diet, and the gut and psychology diet are some diets that are recommended in this condition.
Treatment of bacterial overgrowth
The keystone of SIBO treatment is of course antibiotic therapy, decreasing or even eradicating the excessive bacteria and thus decreasing the pathological mutations they cause in the small intestine. While the effect is often sufficiently directed to induce some researchers to support empirical antibiotics when the diagnosis is suspected, this can hinder the study of the disease due to:
• The significant cost of therapy
• The placebo effect which is large enough to be statistically significant
• The frequent need for multiple courses of antibiotics to manage overgrowth
• Potential complications of antibiotic treatment, such as drug resistance and adverse effects
In one study, a course of antibiotics could be expected to alleviate symptoms for 22 days on average so it would be impractical to consider antibiotic therapy alone in this condition, as it would require a minimum of 12 courses per year.
The most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of SIBO are mostly chosen on the basis of experience, rather than sensitivity and culture studies, which would not be cost-effective. Among the first were tetracyclines, followed by the combination, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, rifaximin which is a derivative of rifamycin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate metronidazole. Ciprofloxacin and metronidazole appear to be more effective, especially in SIBO associated with Crohn’s disease. However, all symptoms do not respond constantly.
Fabian-mueller.net is now exploring the treatment of SIBO, especially finding and eliminating the causes of SIBO, Displacement of colon germs and Build up a healthy flora in the small intestine, and support bowel function. While the initial results were positive with respect to lasting and reliable symptom relief, confirmatory work remains to be done.
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