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How Do Other Mental Health Conditions Relate to Substance Use in Adolescents?

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Mental Health Conditions

Often, people who deal with substance abuse are regarded as mentally ill. A teenager who has been using drugs for quite some time will usually have anxiety, panic attacks, depression, behavioral issues, and learning difficulties. If you look closer into their personal lives, they might also have family problems or live in a harmful environment.

Drug use and mental health conditions can be associated with each other since one is likely to follow the other. Teens might think that drugs will cure their emotional and behavioral issues due to their “high” and relaxing effects. However, these substances only last a few hours or a day. When drugs are used, the brain and physical health is severely affected.

This is why a reliable teen drug rehab facility treats someone’s substance abuse issues while addressing their mental health disorder at the same time.

The Relation between Substance Use and Mental Problems

It has been scientifically proven that around half of the people who deal with substance abuse also suffer from mental disorders. Substance use is commonly seen in anxiety disorders, panic disorders, depression, bipolar disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorders. Fortunately, all of these issues are treatable nowadays. Being able to recognize the signs that something might be going on with your teen is essential, so let us see how to identify them:

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Although it is common, especially during this pandemic, to feel anxious due to life uncertainties, whether in school or work, drug users are entirely overwhelmed by anxiety, which prevents them from being productive for long periods. This condition is called generalized anxiety disorder. Its symptoms are constant worrying, overthinking everything, extreme pessimism, seeing daily situations as threatening, indecisiveness, feeling restless, and having difficulty focusing.

Physical symptoms are fatigue, trembling, muscle aches, over-sweating, trouble sleeping, irritability, diarrhea, nausea, and irritable bowel syndrome. These may lead to poor performance at school, work, or even at home. The response should be to verify this condition by an expert promptly.

  • Panic Disorder

Panic attacks are common for people who had traumatic experiences in the past or, simply, consumed drugs. A panic attack is composed of random thoughts of fear that result in extreme physical reactions. Due to the severity of these reactions, you might think that the patient has had a heart attack or worse. The patients need immediate assistance during their panic attacks. Most people have a panic attack once or twice in their whole life, but people with mental health disorders suffer from them constantly. If you or an adolescent you know needs teen mental health treatment in Los Angeles, do the necessary research to get them help.

Despite its scary physical effects, there are effective medications to treat this problem. Signs are a sense of imminent danger even when there is none, uncontrollable fear of loss and death, sweating, chills, trembling, hot flashes, pounding heart rate, headache, nausea, dizziness, feeling of detachment, numbness, abdominal cramping, and shortness of breath. Those with panic disorder are often scared of when their next attack will happen, so seeking treatment is a must.

  • Depression

Depression leads a considerable part of the teenage population into using drugs. Nowadays, given that people might still be in lockdown, the cases of depression are on the rise. It is a mood disorder that makes the patient constantly feel sad and empty. It is mentally and physically draining and ruins productivity.

Depression is not a phase, and no one can escape from it by simply cheering up. It requires a series of treatment procedures, aiming for a long-time result. The symptoms that a patient may manifest daily are feelings of emptiness, complete loss of interest in everything, loss of appetite, irritability, frustration, restlessness, tiredness, insomnia or oversleeping, anxiety, agitation, feelings of worthlessness and guilt, concentration issues, suicidal thoughts — or worse, suicide — and other physical problems like back pains and headaches. Depression creates very noticeable symptoms, especially in people who used to be more active and lively.

  • Bipolar Disorder

This type of mental illness was formerly known as a manic disorder. It is a condition where a patient has extreme mood swings. This includes emotional highs and lows. Depressed people can also have bipolar disorder since the two are closely related. The good news is that this disorder can be controlled with counseling and treatments.

Here are its symptoms: being abnormally upbeat and jumpy, a decreased need for sleep, overconfidence, excessive talkativeness, being easily distracted, racing thoughts, increased energy, depressed mood, visible loss of interest, insomnia or sleeping too much, restlessness, or slow behavior, significant weight loss, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness, indecisiveness, loss of focus, and suicide attempts.

  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

Also known as PTSD, this mental health condition results from a very frightening event that left a trauma on the patient. Common symptoms are flashbacks, fear, and severe anxiety. This mental health disease may appear months or years after the event. These intrusive memories constantly come back to their mind, giving them feelings of unease and anxiousness. They can be seen having nightmares and sudden panic attacks.

As you can see, mental health issues are closely related to each other. Many of their symptoms, such as anxiety, are familiar to every problem. Proper diagnosis by consulting a doctor is a good step towards recovery.

Please note that this list of mental disorders is not exhaustive. These are the five most common mental health issues among adolescents that are highly associated with substance abuse. Now you know how to recognize whether your teen potentially has a mental health problem or not.

However, it is always safer to talk to a doctor. Never conclude that your child has a mental problem without getting the advice of a health professional. The next part will address the chances of mentally ill individuals becoming substance abusers once they reach adolescence.

Increased Risk of Substance Abuse Due to Mental Disorders

According to the US National Institutes of Health, children who have mental disorders have more chances of becoming addicted to drugs and alcohol. They emphasize that prompt and effective medication during their youth will significantly reduce this risk.

Almost one-third of children who turn 18 are casual drinkers and illegal drugs users. This is why early interventions for behavioral and psychological disorders are now used to prevent drug misuse.

The Substance Use and Abuse Problems in Teens

The household environment is a significant factor in this problem. Parents and peers who smoke, as well as poor self-confidence, poor problem-solving skills, and easy access to substances, are only a few of the many reasons why teens turn to drugs for courage and escapism. An alarming survey result from the NIH showed that 22.3% of high school students have easy access to marijuana. More than 40% of high school students have confessed that they have tried marijuana once or twice in their whole life.

As explained by the experts, substance use negatively affects a teen’s brain development. It leads to promiscuity, accidents, fights, and in the worst-case scenario, overdoses. The teenage phase is one of the hardest in life, as it is a stage full of hardships both in school and at home. This is when family problems, relationship failures, and cases of underachievement tend to occur.

If you reside in Los Angeles and believe that your child might be dealing with addiction or mental issues, find an expert to speak with at a teen treatment program.

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The Rising Importance of Orange County Family Doctors and Family Medicines

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family doctor

Are you thinking of getting an orange county family doctor? You may ask us, why do you really need one? Well, there are a ton of reasons why you need a permanent family doctor for yourself and your family. A family doctor is the first reliable and knowledgeable opinion source for your medical conditions keeping in mind your medical history, allergies, lifestyle, and preferences. A good family doctor not only looks into all your medical concerns but also facilitates the prevention of not just any physical but also all your mental, emotional, and spiritual dilemmas. Over the long term, you can form a bond with your primary care physicians that will give you motivation and encouragement to share all your problems and concerns with them without any hesitation. You can also get a solution to all your physical and mental problems. 

Having good primary care now is our best hope for a healthy future tomorrow. And one asset that can contribute to this healthy and prosperous future is the orange county doctors and physicians. From providing treatment to all primary and short-term medical conditions to diagnosing chronic and long-term diseases, family doctors hold an undeniably important place in everyone’s lives. A properly maintained and operated family community clinic isn’t only a blessing in a patient’s life but can also contribute towards social stability. It’s a prominent place where you cannot only consult your family doctor but also get all your tests and scans performed to detect any medical condition. This information can be handy for your doctor to treat and eliminate your health condition.

Why are Orange County Family Doctors & Family Medicines Important?

The need/reasons to have orange county family doctors & family medicines are endless. However, we are stressing the primary five reasons that make it clear as to why their presence can make your life healthier and tension-free.

Your family doctor does a lot more than you notice

 It would be ignorant to think that your primary care physicians just do some yearly medical check-ups. They treat and cure a lot more medical conditions than you think. The list goes on from taking care of emergencies to performing minor surgeries, treating infections and allergies, delivering babies, prescribing pills. Still, sadly a lot of their work generally goes unnoticed. Your family doctors are the bedrock of all your and your family’s immediate and long-term medical needs. 

Your family doctor knows you and your history 

Your family community clinic has all records and reports of your complete medical history. They know about all of your infections and allergies and any medical condition or disease that you may be suffering from. They also have a good idea of your psychological approach to different treatments or methodologies. This can be helpful in situations where you may need any advanced or specialist treatment for any reason. In such cases, your orange county physicians can recommend you to doctors or specialists that will be the most suitable for your condition. 

Family doctors team up with other healthcare professionals 

In case you are facing more than one medical condition, be it physical or mental, your orange county family doctor will easily co-ordinate with your other doctor or health care responder to keep in track of all your treatment to help you get back to your healthy and happy self as soon as possible. They can provide any proactive measures and precautions to your other doctors that can guide them to understand and remedy your condition more quickly and more accurately.

Your family doctor can save your life and your money 

Statistics have shown that your primary care physicians can detect up to 95 percent of their patient’s chronic medical conditions and diseases in their early stages if you keep up with your regular appointments and check-ups. And when these conditions are discovered at their preliminary stages, they can be treated in under 5 percent of the health budget of the amount it would take for the treatment of such diseases and disorders in the long term. Not to forget that any condition caught in its primary stages is more easily beatable than at an advanced and powerful stage. So the next time you or your family members have an appointment with your family community clinic, don’t skip it. 

Your family doctors can take care of you and your family for a lifetime 

Be it a case of simple flu or something as serious as a cardiac attack; it’s most likely that your first call will be to your orange county family doctor. Be it, infants and newborns, or senior citizens, your family doctor, can attend to patients of any age, gender, and medical condition and provide them with the proper diagnosis on time. If the situation calls for special attention, they can quickly connect you to a specialist keeping in mind your medical and family history. Your family doctor looks after you and your family’s unique and personalized needs and takes care of your health for any medical emergency

Now you must have understood how vital your orange county physicians are and what crucial role they play in your life. From providing immediate medical attention to assisting and supporting you through a major health condition, your family doctor always plays an active part in your life. They play a crucial role in identifying, explaining, and providing the best possible treatment of all kinds of health queries and concerns. Family doctors are the guardians of our life that can form a long-term relationship with their patients. You should keep in mind that no matter how technologically advanced things become, nothing can replace the human side of a doctor-patient relationship. So next time you see your primary care physician won’t forget to thank them for everything they do for you. 

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HEALTH

Why CBD Topicals are the perfect recovery tool for everyone

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If you have been living under a rock the past four years you may have not heard about cannabidiol, or CBD for short. CBD is a cannabinoid found at high levels in the hemp plant. Unlike THC, cannabidiol is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid. CBD has been used in everything from tinctures to toothpicks, but one growing product category has been CBD topicals such as creams, gels, and salves.

Why are CBD Creams so popular?

According to Statista, topicals were the second most popular product category in the CBD industry, and research suggests it can it can expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 15-20% over the next several years. Topical products such as creams and gels have become popular for mainly three reasons: adoption, safety, and for the simple fact that they work. Retail outlets such a CVS and Kroger’s have committed significant shelf space to these products and other healthcare offices have adopted the retail sale and use of CBD topicals in their practice. Something that would have been unfathomable five years ago is the norm. Topicals by far are the safest way to consume CBD as well. It is a safe median since you are not ingesting or inhaling the product. Also, creating a base, the actual cream or gel that is infused with CBD, is not cost efficient to produce at scale for some of the more unscrupulous brands. The most important factor as to why topicals are the largest product category in the CBD space is they work. Guidance has been given by organizations such as the Arthritis Foundation on CBD topical use because of observation studies and many in the medical field have given their approval on topical products. Brands such as Dorsi Health have also stated many see the benefit of topical CBD products because it is a targeted approach to relief.

Who can benefit from CBD?

Although you have most likely been inundated with images of hip 20 somethings eating CBD gummies, everyone can benefit from CBD topicals. A growing segment in the category has been individuals 55+ who have never used cannabis products. Along with this growing segment, CBD topicals remain very popular among athletes, people recovering from injuries, people in the manufacturing, construction, and agricultural industries, and anyone trying to find relief from everyday aches and pains. The variety of people that can benefit from topical CBD products keeps growing and companies such as Dorsi Health and other companies focused on the health benefits of CBD are continuing to expand their product offerings to reach consumer needs.

 

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What is a Japanese garden? and types of Japanese gardens.

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types of Japanese garden

What is a Japanese Garden?

The roots of the world-famous and widespread art event such as the Japanese garden today are lost in the darkness of ancient traditions. However, it is generally believed that with the adoption of Buddhism, a conscious garden art based on design principles began to be emphasized, and there is an average of 1500 years of Japanese garden art. Although Japanese gardens include many man-made landscape elements, they include the design that symbolizes nature with all its features and depicts its mystery with a philosophical expression. However, Japanese garden art has an understanding of absolute realism and naturalism,

One of the strongest and most distinctive features of Japanese philosophy is its interpretation of the relationship between nature and human beings. Nature is taken as a separate element of equal importance to man.

Japan has a temperate climate and a wonderful landscape. All these have brought the Japanese nation closer to nature. Maybe that’s why the Japanese have been nature lovers since ancient times. They believe that the condition of living in peace is not to oppose nature or to belittle these beauties that their country has bestowed upon them, but to assimilate nature.

Japanese garden art, which draws its inspiration from nature, such as painting and poetry, has three common elements. Rock, water, and plant. In Japanese garden design, we see that the synthesis of the natural landscape takes shape abstractly. In this understanding, the aim of garden art is to make the beauties perceived from the natural landscape with human effort. The Japanese have tried their skills at all scales and species, from national parks to a miniature forest grown in a single pot.

Japanese Garden Types

Japanese Garden by Form

The types of Japanese garden is divided into two.

  • Hill gardens (Tsukiyama)
  • Flat gardens (Hira-niwa )

Hill Gardens

It consists of hills and lakes. These gardens have formed the basis of the gardens belonging to the nobles for centuries. Water is the most important element of the garden and is found in various forms in the garden. It can be found in the form of lakes, streams, and waterfalls. The garden features hills, stones, and plants that support the water view. All this has been cleverly designed in a certain harmony and balance. Hill gardens are placed in front of the main building to cover a large area. An ideal Japanese landscape is a combination of mountain and water elements, as in hill gardens. The direction of water flow is important in hill gardens. If possible, the flow direction of the water should be in the east-west direction.

Hill gardens are divided into 5 styles among themselves.

These; the ocean, stream, valley, swamp, and reed landscapes.

All these styles emerge with the use of stones in various ways to provide the desired landscape.

Flat Gardens

 It is a style mostly used for planning flat areas between various buildings.

For a long time, both garden types developed together, and the selection was made according to the condition of the land. Especially in the times when the tea ceremony became a tradition, another variety from the flat garden type emerged, it is called chaniwa.

Four main garden styles emerged from the two main garden types, namely hill and flat gardens.

  • Dry Stone Garden (Kare-sansui)
  • Tea Garden (Chaniwa)
  • Promenade Garden (Kaiyu-teien)
  • Miniature Garden (Hako-niwa)

Dry Stone Japanese Garden (Square – Sansui)

One of the greatest developments in the history of the Japanese garden is the development of dry stone gardens. It developed at the end of the Muromachi Period. It is known as the classical form of Zen gardens.

The main elements in these gardens are rocks and stones. In this garden style, a strong water expression is created with no water, rock, gravel, and raked sand. The aim of Dry Stone Gardens is to create a large space in small areas. The biggest reason why this type of garden is considered unique in the history of garden art; is due to the fact that it gives the maximum effect with the least element that can be used. Dry Stone Gardens are poor in appearance but rich in content.

Many factors have been effective in the development of dry gardens.

  1. Economic Factors – After the Onin Revolution, a great deal of money went into the restoration of temples. Therefore, it was difficult to build large water gardens of the 15th century and karesansui type gardens were preferred.
  2. Water Resources – The difficulty in finding water resources, which have a very important place in the construction of water gardens, has pushed designers to create gardens where water is not used.
  3. Spiritual needs and Aesthetic Preferences of Zen Priests – Zen ideas in symbolism have produced dry gardens. Zen monks preferred deep narratives in simplicity. Therefore, perceiving the sound of water in the white sand had a mystical meaning appealing to the Zen spirit, and this was the most important feature of dry stone gardens.
  4. Proximity in Zen Architecture and Shoin Chamber Architecture – During this period, the temporary residences (hojo) of the high priests were built in the shoin style. The entire surface and patio was covered with tatami. As a result, they needed a landscape view close to the building that they could see from inside the dwelling. Therefore, Karesansui gardens, which do not take up much space and keep the streams and mountains alive in its small area, were preferred.

Dry Stone Japanese Garden Examples

Ryoanji Japanese Garden

The stone garden of the Ryoanji temple in Kyoto is one of the most beautiful and rare examples of this type. The Ryoanji temple garden was built in 1499 by the painter and gardener Saomi. It is the world’s most well-known of Japanese gardens.

10m wide, 30m long. One side is the veranda of the temple and the other 3 sides are surrounded by an earthen wall with a tiled roof. It consists of 15 large and small rocks placed on flat ground, covered with coarse-grained white sand. The rock groups consisted of 5, 2, 3, 2, and 3 rocks each. There is no other plant in the garden other than the moss formed over time.

An asymmetrical balance has been established, and rock groups have created certain dynamism within themselves and with other groups. The simple beauty of the garden evokes philosophical thought. This arrangement, in which fine white sand replaces water, creates one of the most elegant arrangements ever to be found. Because it evokes the movements of water flowing in different directions. Here, the landscape, complete with stacked stones, represents a tigress and her cub swimming on the river trying to escape the danger of the water.

Ryoanji Garden stands above all other Japanese gardens in terms of design. No one but the trained gardener can enter the garden.

Even walking around the garden is prohibited; one can just stop and contemplate. “Shinzo”, one of the Zen monks who lived in the 16th century, stated the philosophy in this garden was ‘to travel 30,000 miles in a single step’. Another Zen monk of the period described the garden with the words, “It cannot tire anyone to watch this type of garden, and one finds himself in a realm of thoughts without realizing the time spent here.”

Daisen-in Japanese Garden

It is a typical example of Kare-Sansui, made in Kyoto in 1513 by the priest Soho and the painter Soami. A section of 30 m 2 more 70 m 2 ‘is a ligand L-shaped spectacle garden.

The arrangement is created with symbols. Its soil is arid, and the impression of water created by fine stones contrasts with a bed of sand and moss vegetation. This masterfully designed garden was built not to be stepped into, but to be watched from the veranda. It is the most perfect type of illusion garden, that is, a ‘visual’ garden.

In the background is a mountain of pruned bushes. This image is highlighted by two standing rocks. There is a waterfall on the right. On the left is the turtle island made up of rocks and on the right is the crane island. The water pouring from the waterfall is symbolized by white-toothed sand. This symbolism stems from the Zen philosophy of reaching nothingness.

One of Japan’s most famous stones can be seen here. It resembles sailing ships in China and has been floating in a dry landscape river since the 1500s as a symbol of the passage of human life.

The karesansui gardens, which developed towards the end of the Muromachi period, are an entirely new style. It spread from Daitokuji and Myoshinji to the Monasteries of Gozan and from there to temples in the provinces. Its influence was also seen in the Zen-style monasteries of other sects in Kyoto.

Japanese Tea Garden

Tea garden style

This style, which first appeared in the Muromachi Period, reached its peak in the Momoyama and Edo periods, especially in the Edo Period, tea gardens were adopted as a garden style.

Tea philosophy

Tea philosophy, called Teaism, is not just an aestheticism but expresses views on humanity and nature through the partnership of morality and religion. Teaism is healthy because it requires cleanliness, economics because it shows peace in simplicity rather than complexity and expensiveness, moral geometry because it describes a sense of proportion to the universe. In short, it represents the true spirit of Eastern Democracy. Strangely enough, humanity has only ever met in a teacup. The tea ceremony is the only Asian ceremony that presupposes universal respect.

First tea room

The first independent tea room was the work of Sen no Soeki, the greatest of the tea masters, better known as Rikyu, who set the formalities of the 16th century Tea Ceremony and brought it to a high level of excellence. The tea room is quite plain in appearance. It is smaller than the smallest Japanese house, and the materials used in its construction evoke particularly refined poverty.

However, it should not be forgotten that all this is the result of deep artistic foreknowledge, and more attention was paid to all the details than to the construction of the richest palaces and temples. A good tea room costs more than a normal mansion. Because the craftsmanship and the selected materials require great attention and care. The simplicity and purity of the tea room are the results of imitating the Zen Monastery.

Tea house

The arrangement of the garden part where the tea room is located is also under the deep influence of the tea philosophy. Tea gardens, called Chanhva, are a small venue in a Japanese garden where tea ceremonies are held.

In this garden, which is gathered for the purpose of drinking tea, it is possible to come across a tea house, a study room, a covered waiting area, and Japanese garden elements such as water bowls, stone oil lamps, and stepping stones. When entering the garden, guests are directed to the waiting bench with stepping stones. After washing hands and mouth in water bowls, guests go to the tea room.

Anyone who has walked this garden path can’t help but wonder how his soul is lightened and risen above everyday thoughts as he passes over the neat irregularity of the path stones, through the dawn of evergreens with dried pine needles, and past the musty-covered granite lanterns. The ingenuity of tea masters creating these effects of purity and tranquility is indeed great.

Tea gardens appear as gate gardens (roji) for the first time in Japanese history. They are built in narrow spaces between buildings. What is important here is what is felt while passing through this area. From the moment guests step into the garden, they participate in the tea ceremony. The tea gardens are designed in such a way that the guests can give their full attention to the act of walking. That’s why stepping stones used in the garden are very important.

Starting from the Muromachi Period, many tea gardens were built. After the retirement of Sen no Rikyu’s eldest son, Sotan, the family tradition was divided into 3 schools, and each of them was headed by Satan’s son. These are the Ura Senke, Mushanokoji Senke and Omote Senke Tea Schools. Zangetsutei and Fushin’an Omote Senke tea houses in Kyoto are known as the best examples of their era.

Zangetsutei is a Shoin type building, with living room-style tea rooms inside, Fushin’an is connected to Zangetsutei from the east wing by a wooden floor corridor. Guests at the tea ceremony enter this house through a square wooden shutter that opens from the back. Inside is a room with only 3 tatami mats. Jagged, split pillars and mud walls are distinctive rural symbols determined by the wealth and power of this era.

Promenade Gardens

The emergence of the ride gardens, known as Kaiyushiki, dates back to the 17th century. It has emerged by combining the rural nature of the tea garden and the visual beauties of the old paradise gardens. Kaiyushiki includes almost all traditional design elements. Pools, mountains, islands, streams, bridges, lighthouses, and jumping stones are design elements used in this type of garden. The aim is to allow the visitors to have a good time by walking around the whole garden.

The main element in this type of garden is the pools with their islands. There is a path that goes around the pool. This road gives visitors a tour of the whole park, using jumping stones or a bridge when necessary, allowing the visitor to slow down and perceive the sights that require attention.

Pictures have been the source of earlier garden designs, so earlier garden styles tended to be pictorial, whereas we cannot say this for promenade gardens. Because the trend in this type of gardens is music. In this, it is effective that the garden includes the act of acting as in the tea gardens. Of course, the designers gave importance to the elements used in the garden, but they also gave equal importance to the best use of the space.

Promenade Examples of Japanese Gardens

Katsura Imperial Japanese Garden

Many examples of this type of gardens have been built since the second half of the Edo Period. The oldest extant excursion garden example is the Katsura Emperor Villa. Its construction began in 1620 and was completed in 1659. Made by the great tea master Kobori Enshu. It has incredible beauty in terms of scenery. The pond in the garden is fed from the nearby Katsura creek.

The area around the pond is covered with pathways. Some of these are covered with jumping stones, some with stone pavements, and some with pebbles. Access to 3 islands in the pond is provided by wooden, earth, and stone bridges. Attention was paid to the variety of materials used in the landscape and flooring. To create the effect of surprise, the landscapes are placed in such a way that they disappear and reappear as they walk through the garden.

There are 7 tea houses in the Katsura garden. This garden has been designed to meet many needs. such as aesthetic, spiritual, and recreational needs. Inside a small temple called Onrin-do, various fields for sports; There is a kind of football called kemari and a field for horse riding. The pond is large enough to hold boat parties in it.

There is a platform in front of the palace where the moon can be watched. The palace consists of 3 Shoin buildings. 42,900 grids on a field. Katsura garden set an example for the construction of many gardens later on.

Murin-an Japanese Garden

It is an example of a strolling garden built during the Meiji Period. Due to the absence of traditional plants in Murin-an, it is considered a turning point in the history of the walking gardens in Kyoto. Its construction began in 1893 by Ogawa Jihei and was completed in 1896. The garden has proven itself with its striking details. There is a 3-tier waterfall inside the garden. This waterfall spills into a wide, shallow stream. The mountains to the east can be seen through the trees.

Miniature Gardens

Since the Japanese garden constitutes a world created for religious purposes, the need to integrate with that world, with that cosmos, necessitated the incorporation of the image of these gardens into everyday life. So the Japanese developed a garden art, with some reductions adapted to all kinds of circumstances of their life.

They named the box with a miniature landscape made to be put in a doorway or in a shop.

The small lake with a small redfish was the main element of this composition. The name Ban-kei is rounding, oval or rectangular, measuring 0.90m with 1.20m. porcelain, bronze, and even cement were placed on trays; In them, a real landscape was created by placing dwarf trees and tiny bridges on a backdrop of soaked and molded-painted old newspapers, mud, and sand. The Haka-Niva (miniature garden) is a miniature model of the Japanese garden on a small tray scale.

How to arrange a garden? What is taken into account? We also recommend that you read the detailed article we wrote about it.

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