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Steps to make your own homemade antivirus mask

Chris Rynolds

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How to make a homemade antivirus mask? If you want to have this resource to avoid contagions of common viruses, do not miss this post. We detail how to make one of these antivirus masks step by step and also talk about its correct use. We start!

Antivirus masks, what are they for?

Antivirus masks, which are purchased at specialized sites such as pharmacies, are useful on certain occasions when you want to prevent the spread of common viruses such as colds and flu. As reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) , this type of medical masks can be of great help in limiting the spread of certain respiratory diseases.

However, it should be noted that the use of a mask does not guarantee that the spread of viruses is avoided, in addition to other basic precautions such as washing your hands well, coughing and sneezing into your elbow or a tissue and see a doctor if the symptoms are persistent or if there is a fever.

How to make your own homemade antivirus mask step by step

If you want to wear one of these masks and find it difficult to find it in the market, you can do it yourself at home. And for that…

Materials needed to make a homemade antivirus mask:

  • Chiffon or muslin
  • Rubber
  • Scissors

Step 1

Cut the gauze or muslin according to the size necessary to cover the mouth and nose but without disturbing the eyes. The simplest thing is that you draw with a pencil the pattern for which you have to cut.

Step 2

Once you have the gauze or muslin ready you will have to put some rubber bands on both sides so that they are held behind the ears. Cut the gauze a little and tie the rubber to the sides.

Step 3

Put on the mask and hold it behind the ears to check that it fits and does not move. If necessary adjust the tires until you find the correct size.

How to put on, use and remove the homemade antivirus mask?

As we have said before, the homemade antivirus mask can help prevent the spread of viruses and bacteria but it must be used correctly, otherwise, it would lead to the virus being concentrated in the mask itself.

  • You must make sure that the mask you have made at home covers your nose and mouth but not your eyes. There must be a minimum space between the face and the mask so that you can be comfortable but so that, at the same time, the passage of viruses and other particles is avoided.
  • Once you have put on the antivirus mask, avoid touching it every so often, especially if you cannot wash your hands because, for example, you go on the subway.
  • If your homemade antivirus mask is made, as we have indicated above, of gauze or muslin, you will have to wash it after each use or prepare a new one. If you have chosen to wash it, first of all, remove the gums, wash with warm water and soap, let dry and then put the gums again.
  • If you use the mask to avoid infecting others with the virus you have, be sure to wash the mask with disinfectant soap or even a little alcohol to burn.
  • You should not share your homemade antivirus mask even when you have washed it, you run the unnecessary risk of contagion.
  • When you take off your mask, do it from behind, never touch the front. Immediately after throwing it away in a trash can or closed garbage bag or wash it. Just then wash your hands with soap and water or with a disinfectant.

Remember, if you are healthy you do not need to use a mask (unless you know or suspect that there is someone close to you who has a virus). You should also take it if you are the one with the virus so as not to spread it to others. The homemade antivirus mask can protect you from certain viruses and bacteria but you should always follow the rest of the basic hygiene recommendations, it is the best weapon to prevent the spread of certain diseases.

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Membrane filters you need to know and their properties

Bryan Nesbit

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Membrane filters or commonly known as “membranes” are microporous membranes with specific pore size ratings. It is also called a sieve, microporous filter, or screen. Cellulose acetate membrane filter preserves or filter particles bigger than the pore size. If there are particles slighter than the pore size, other mechanisms will be used. There are different types of membrane filters, such as nylon, cellulose acetate, mixed cellulose ester, or MCE membrane filters. Here are more membrane filter types and their attributes.

The mixed cellulose ester

MCE is composed of cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose. It has a high porosity and can provide a higher flow rate. It also has a high level of protein binding, which can be prohibited by pretreatment or application. MCE is a standard membrane that can be used in many laboratory applications, such as filtration and sterilization of biological fluids, pollution analysis, microbiology, and air monitoring. The membrane is able to be converted into transparent to view the particles collected during the filtration process.

Cellulose acetate-

coated cellulose acetate consists of cellulose acetate cast on a non-woven polyester carrier. It has a non-fiber releasing ability, and the protein binding level associated with nitrocellulose is low. It also has a low level of static charge and chemically enhances compatibility with low molecular weight alcohols. The coated cellulose acetate is used as a pre-filter or clarification filter.

Hydrophilic PTFE

Hydrophilic PTFE has characteristics described as having the greatest resistance to chemicals and pH. The membrane has a high level of flow rate and almost no water-extractable. When the membrane is wetted with water, it is transparent to the naked eye, so it is very suitable for use in HPLC, organic solvents, and other aqueous mixtures.

Hydrophobic

PTFE The characteristic of hydrophobic PTFE is that it has a high porosity is very thin and behaves like a monolithic retention membrane. It also has a passive effect on most corrosive chemical solvents, alkalis, and strong acids. The membrane traps water-containing aerosols by sterilizing the gas. It is also used for gas and air discharge so that gas can freely pass through the membrane, and at the same time prohibit liquid from entering. This protects the best samples and vacuum pumps. In addition, hydrophobic PTFE clarifies and sterilizes strong acids and other solvents that are incompatible with other membrane filters.

Nylon

nylon membrane filters are made by impregnating polyester fiber webs with polymers made of nylon. This makes the membrane durable, heat-resistant, and essentially hydrophilic. Because it is hydrophilic, it is suitable for alcohol and aqueous samples. The membrane filter can be used to sterilize, filter, and clarify organic aqueous solutions.

Cellulose acetate

The membrane filter is composed of diacetate and cellulose triacetate. It is characterized by high strength and low electrostatic charge. The advantage of using it is that it can be repeatedly disinfected without losing its integrity or changing its bubble point. Associated with MCE membrane filters in stipulations of their solvent confrontation to alcohol molecular weight increase at low levels.  Cellulose acetate is used to enhance the recovery of positive organisms and filter enzyme solutions. It is also used for cytological diagnosis and receptor binding research.

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Rapid production of porous cellulose acetate membrane for water filtration using readily available chemicals

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Abstract

We describe a chemistry lab experiment using everyday elements and readily available chemicals to introduce porous polymer membranes to high school and college students. The principle of membrane filtration is illustrated by filtering solutions containing watercolor pigments or food coloring, while the food coloring is completely soluble in water and easily passes through the membrane. . The laboratory experiment can be performed in a 2 hour activity and is intended to (1) expose students to an exciting new field of materials science. He familiarizes them with porous membranes for the production of drinking water and presents them with a model elimination technique that uses the acid / base theory. In Switzerland, 52 high school students and 55 high school teachers have already successfully completed the laboratory experience and found the activity interesting and motivating.

 

introduction

Importance of safe drinking water

Access to clean and safe drinking water remains a global problem. In developing countries, around 80% of diseases are linked to poor water and sanitation conditions. Among the most common health risks of unclean drinking water are water-borne illnesses caused by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites. In a comprehensive study, Bain and colleagues examined the microbial quality of drinking water and estimated that approximately 1.8 billion people worldwide use a source of drinking water contaminated with E. coli or other bacteria. thermotolerant coliforms (TTC).

Various approaches, with their inherent advantages and disadvantages, have been studied for eliminating microorganisms linked to waterborne diseases. The portable water purification devices currently in use include systems based on ultra and microfiltration membranes, ceramic filters, activated carbon filters or chemical halogen disinfection. The disadvantages of the most efficient systems are, in general, their complex installation and their periodic maintenance, which leads to high operating costs and, consequently, makes these systems unsuitable for developing countries. In addition, many point-of-use treatment devices are not effective against all possible contaminants. Therefore, new water treatment technologies are being explored.

Water quality issues are an integral part of many high school chemistry courses, and various experiments have been developed as educational laboratory procedures. Water filtration experiments for the removal of nanomaterials have already been described and a laboratory experiment comparing various biochemical separation technologies (including filtration) has been presented. The experience presented here differs from previous approaches in that the filtering device itself (a porous membrane) is made by students from standard materials, then its separation performance is tested.

Cellulose Acetate Membrane for Water Filtration

In this article, we describe a laboratory experiment to produce a cellulose acetate membrane filter for drinking water which, in its production stages, resembles the commercially available water filter, but which is accomplished using everyday items such as a kitchen blender, glass dishes, rulers and chemicals readily available. The entire experiment can be performed in a 2 hour laboratory exercise. Supporting information for this article includes a student brochure and instructor notes for conducting the classroom experience (approximately 20 to 40 students). The production of membranes is based on the addition of calcium carbonate to a solution of cellulose acetate dissolved in acetone. Glycerol is also added to the reaction mixture and acts as a pore spacer. The polymer solution is then mixed using a kitchen mixer, and the resulting dispersion is spread on a glass plate using a stainless steel ruler. After evaporation of the solvent in ambient air, the calcium carbonate and glycerol particles are washed from the polymer matrix in an acid bath and then rinsed in a water bath.

Functional test of the membrane using watercolor and food coloring

Students test the performance of the membrane obtained with a solution of watercolor and food coloring. Although, when mixed with water, both give colored water, the color of the food used is a water-soluble dye, and watercolor is a dispersion of pigments, with particles between 40 and 80 µm in size. The watercolor solution based on pigments is first passed through the membrane. Then the filtration is repeated with the food coloring solution. In both cases, students are invited to record their observations. The experiments with the two solutions are then repeated with a standard filter for a Buchner funnel.

Procedure

Equipment and chemicals

The experiment uses the infrastructure and materials available in a university-level chemistry laboratory (see Information on teaching support and notes to students), as well as certain additions, which can be easily obtained:

• Kitchen mixer with at least 800 W of power (eg Philips HR 2195/04)

• Mirror or glass plate (148 × 210 mm2 or larger area)

•           Tape

• Ruler with stainless steel edge or aluminum profile.

• Two plastic tanks for dilute hydrochloric acid and a double boiler.

• Cellulose acetate (Sigma-Aldrich n ° 180955)

• Calcium carbonate (Sigma-Aldrich No. 21069)

• Watercolor (for example, Artists Loft Fundamentals watercolor pans set on amazon.com)

• Food coloring (for example bright blue FCF E133)

Preparation of a solution of cellulose acetate polymer

Preparation of the cellulose acetate dispersion

All of the cellulose acetate membrane filter was transferred to a kitchen mixer. Then, 41 g of calcium carbonate and 17.6 g of glycerol were added, and the suspension was stirred for 3 minutes in the highest setting of the kitchen mixer. The dispersion was placed in a new 250 ml Schott bottle and closed to limit evaporation of the solvent. The kitchen mixer was immediately filled with water to precipitate the remaining dispersion and the polymer waste was deposited in household waste.

Removal of calcium carbonate particles

To remove the calcium carbonate particles, a plastic container was filled with 5 L of water and another container with 5 L of hydrochloric acid (0.24 M). The mirror plate containing the membrane sheet was then immersed in the hydrochloric acid bath. The membrane sheet was released from the mirror plate, and gas bubbles indicated the removal of the calcium carbonate particles. After 10 minutes, the membrane sheet was transferred to the container containing only water and washed for an additional 5 minutes. Finally, the membrane sheet was removed from the water bath and placed on a cloth. Another kitchen towel was used to dry the membrane.

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Orlando Dermatologist Reports Coronavirus Rash- Sunlight Needed for Vitamin D

Chris Rynolds

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Getting to deal with a whole new disease is very unsettling. No one has answers to anything, and that is enough to cause panic across any nation.

Well, that is precisely what is happening now with the Coronavirus. All the symptoms cropping up from different areas is bringing in more worry and doubt. The Coronavirus is an upper respiratory disease that gets in the way of your breathing, and it makes it harder for air passage in and out of the lungs. And now, there is something else worrisome — the Coronavirus rash.

So what is this rash, and where has it come from?

Is there any relation between skin rashes and Coronavirus

Doctor around the world including any Orlando dermatologist attest that it is not unusual to see skin rashes on someone infected with a viral infection. Just like herpes that appears around the lips and chickenpox that present all over the body.

The reasons this can happen is one, the rashes are a by-product of a robust immune system fighting against the virus. And two, it could be that the virus is directly affecting the skin cells as in the case of the chickenpox. Studies on the sources and targets of the coronavirus rash are still unknown.

The rashes have manifested in several ways so far. These are:

  • Head to toe rashes
  • Hive-like eruptions
  • Blisters
  • Purple rashes across the body
  • Bumps and lesions on the heels and toes

Now, what is perplexing is that these rashes are presenting on younger coronavirus patients. But any Orlando dermatologist should not make any conclusions yet as it is known that sometimes viral infections can impact almost every organ in the body, including the skin. The astonishing part is that the rashes are presenting differently from one patient to the other.

Types of rashes reported

Livedo Reticularis

The first kind of rash is the Livedo reticularis which is a vascular condition. It is characterized by mottled, purplish discolourations that mostly appear in the legs and appear to form a net-like pattern.

Petechial

This rash appears like a bright red, pinpoint rash that is commonly seen in other ailments. It is caused by bleeding under the skin.

Vesicular

A vesicular rash is diagnosed when a rash appears in the same spot as multiple vesicles with fluid trapped under the top layer of skin. The blisters are painful to touch, which make it hard to resist touching because they are itchy.

Acral Ischemia

This is a chicken-pox-like rash that appears specifically on the toes. It seems to be raised, looks like frostbite because of the purple lesions. These rashes are what has been named the COVID toes.

Morbilliform

These rashes look like measles rashes. They consist of maculopapular skin eruptions and are mostly because of hypersensitivity in patients taking antiretroviral and antiepileptic drugs. It is also a common outcome in viral infections like Coronavirus.

Urticaria

These are commonly known as hives or nettle rash. They are an outbreak of red bumps that are mostly triggered by several things, include medication reactions, allergies and infections.

Is there a cure for these rashes?

Any Orlando dermatologist would love to say that there is, but there is no known cure for the rashes. What doctors are doing is keeping the lesions in control using anti-inflammatory medications. And the fact that they are presenting in different forms makes it more challenging to come up with one specific cure.

With that said, it is still advisable for anyone showing any of the above symptoms to seek medical assistance immediately. Not all rashes are a result of Coronavirus, so it is safe to see a doctor first. So eat right and know that sunlight needed for vitamin D, especially in people of colour is essential too.

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