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What is dementia, what are the symptoms, stages, and types of dementia? How is dementia different from Alzheimer’s?

Adeel Mehmood

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dementia

Dementia is the name given to diseases in which forgetfulness is common. Which is more common in elderly people, can occur with different diseases. It is popularly known as dementia. What is dementia, what are the symptoms? How it is treated? What are the stages and types of it? How it is different from Alzheimer’s? We have compiled the answer to your questions for you.

Dementia, which occurs as a result of advancing age, is briefly called forgetfulness. Discomfort directly affects the working power of the brain. Thought, deliberation, and remembering sections are among the affected areas.

What is dementia?

It is a group disorder that can affect social skills and thinking. Which is not a single disease, has many types. The most common type is Alzheimer’s. The second most common type is called vascular Dementia.

Dementia, which means mind in Latin, is expressed as the disappearance of the mind. However, It doesn’t come on suddenly. Symptoms are usually slow and always persist. However, some types of it may be caused by a deficiency in the body or a side effect of medications. This type does not usually progress. It will surely come back.

What are the symptoms of dementia?

The most common symptom is that new information is immediately forgotten. However, in order for a person to be considered Dementia, the person must have impairments in at least two of the following.

  • Communication, language.
  • Memory
  • Attention ability, focus.
  • Judgment and judgment, scrutiny.
  • Visual perception.

As soon as you think that you or you have impairments in at least two of the above, you should consult experts. Even if the symptoms indicate irreversibly, many things can be gained with early detection. Despite Dementia, which will increase as traits progress, liver function can be planned.

How is dementia treated?

There is no test that can diagnose dementia yet. However, the physician performs clinical studies and asks questions to his patients. When the disease is suspected, the patient can have various brain tests done. The best treatment for dementia is a medication that can be used temporarily. Medications allow for temporary relief of discomfort.

However, there are treatments that are applied without the use of drugs. These are usually psychological therapies administered by experts and changes that the person can make in his or her life. Changes that can be made in life become necessary in some cases. These can be done in case of progression of dementia with the help of a doctor.

It is necessary to be prepared for the later stages. Studies on making the person safer in the house may be among these. Professional support should be taken completely.

Knives and sharp tools should not be in the middle. In addition, patients cannot work in crowded environments, even in their early stages. For this, the preparation of a calm environment may be considered necessary for the advancement of life.

Tasks need to be made simple. All tasks should become easy and divided into specific sections. Success-oriented plans should be made.

What are the stages of dementia?

It have three stages. They consist of three parts as early, middle and late stages.

In the early stage; problems may arise from being unable to keep track of time, forgetfulness and getting lost in familiar places.

In the middle stage; symptoms become sharper. It can be seen as forgetting people’s names and recent events, getting lost at home, needing help for personal care, having difficulties in communication, and starting to experience behavioral changes.

In the last late stage; it can be defined as being unaware of the place and time, not being able to take personal care, not knowing relatives, increased behavior, and walking difficulties.

What are the types of dementia?

Alzheimer’s: Alzheimer’s, defined as a common amnesia disease, is a type of Dementia disorder.

Vascular Dementia: The second very familiar type of Dementia. It occurs as a result of damage to the vessels supplying blood to the brain. Memory loss and slowness are common symptoms.

Lewy Body Dementia: Common symptoms include seeing things that do not exist, moving asleep, and attention problems.

Front temporal Dementia: This type of Dementia occurs as a result of the breakdown of cells in the frontal lobe of the brain. Thinking, judgment, personality changes are among the symptoms of this type.

Mixed Dementia: It is a type in which all types of Dementia coexist. A symptom of each type of Dementia can be included here.

Why does dementia occur?

The brain has many different regions, each responsible for different functions (e.g. memory, judgment, and movement). When cells in a particular area are damaged, that area cannot perform its normal functions.

It is caused by damage to brain cells. This damage interferes with the ability of brain cells to communicate with each other. When brain cells cannot communicate normally, thinking, behavior and emotions can be affected.

Different types are associated with certain types of brain cell damage in specific areas of the brain. For example, in Alzheimer’s disease, high levels of certain proteins inside and outside of brain cells make it difficult for brain cells to stay healthy and communicate with each other. The brain area called the hippocampus is the center of learning and memory in the brain, and the brain cells in this area are often the first area to be damaged in Alzheimer’s disease. That’s why memory loss is often one of the first symptoms of Alzheimer’s.

What is the frequency of dementia?

According to the data of the World Health Organization (WHO); there are around 50 million dementia patients worldwide, 60% of whom live in low and middle-income countries. About 10 million new cases are seen each year. With the aging of society, it is estimated that the total number of patients will reach 82 million in 2030 and 152 million in 2050. 

Is Dementia Inherited?

It is mostly not inherited. However, there are rare types that can be inherited. In these cases, the disease usually develops early in life, and some people begin to experience symptoms in their 30s.

The main risk factor of Alzheimer’s disease is age and its frequency increases with aging. However, the presence of Alzheimer’s disease in the family may increase the incidence in other members compared to other people.

How Do Dementia Patients Behave?

The most common symptom is memory loss. People forget about their recent events. They have difficulty identifying the names of their relatives and who they are. They forget where they put things. They can even disappear inside the house. They cannot comfortably continue the conversation. There may be sudden and unnecessary changes in mood. They have difficulty doing what they always do in daily life.

How is dementia different from Alzheimer’s?

Alzheimer’s disease is a type of Dementia. Therefore, Alzheimer’s is actually the same as Dementia. However, It is different from Alzheimer’s. It is more general and includes many more ailments. It can be said that the changes in protein movements show the differences between these two. 

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HEALTH

June bug: How to get rid of the June bug or Green June Beetle

Nayar Malik

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june bug

Relaxing with a drink on the pouch is when you suddenly get stiff and hit a flying bug. Looking down, you can see that the culprit is a beetle, more specifically a June bug. These pests are attracted to the lights you have, but they can’t do much harm to you, but they can annoy your deck on early summer nights. But your landscape is not so lucky.

What are the June bugs?

Part of the problem when discussing the “June bug” is that this common name is fooled in two ways.

  • Many different insects pass by this common name, but not all of them destroy the landscape of all parts of the Northern Hemisphere equally.
  • Different common names are used even when discussing a particular species. “June Bug” is the most popular in some areas, but in other areas “June Beetle” or “May Beetle” may be used.

All bug species in June are considered scarab beetles, all starting in the form of larvae known as “larvae” and all appearing as adults in the garden from late spring to early summer. Both adults and larvae can damage the landscape. However, keep in mind that not all beetles are bad. Lady beetles ( Hippodamia convergence ) are very beneficial.

Junebug grabs are most famous for damaging the lawn (living underground, eating grassroots, and causing lawn withering), but adults can eat leaves, shrubs, vegetables, and more. The damage caused by adults varies from region to region as well as from year to year. For example, in the years of New England (USA), one of the bugs in June, Japanese beetles ( Popilia japonica ) devastate pumpkins in your garden, but strangely in other years. You may be absent.

The insect most strongly associated with the common name “Junebug” is Phyllophaga longispina. Unless otherwise stated, Phyllophaga spp is used. What we’re dealing with here (although most of the information applies equally to other types of June bugs).

Signs of problem (even if you can’t see the beetles or larvae)

There are several indicators that may be a problem for adults or their larvae in June.

  • There is a brown patch on the lawn.
  • A small hole is dug in the lawn overnight. These holes are often made by scanks looking for their food source, grabs.
  • Mole also eats larvae, so if you have a mole problem, the cause may be the larvae.
  • There are holes in the leaves of some plants.

Track their detection by monitoring the landscape for such signs and confirming the presence of these insects. To confirm the presence of grabs, dig grass in the lawn and examine the soil for greyish caterpillar-like insects that vary in length from less than an inch to just over an inch (“C“ Disturbance ”. Inch shape “. To make sure there are adults, walk faithfully through the landscape and look for beetles on the leaves of the plant.

Taking effective and timely action is a great way to prevent problems caused by the June bug and its problems.

The best way to get rid of June bugs

The “best” way in this case is the method rather than the timing focus. Do not wait for adult beetles to appear before performing pest control. It is much better to target the larvae than to try to kill an adult. The larvae are contained in a defined space under the grass. This makes it easy to erase everything. In contrast, adults as flying insects can be anywhere.

The life cycle of a bug in June varies from species to species, but the typical scenario is:

  • Females lay eggs on the lawn in midsummer.
  • The grab quickly hatches and remains near the soil surface until it falls.
  • They dig deep into the ground for the winter.
  • They come out of the ground as adult beetles in the spring.

To kill the larvae, spray an insecticide containing carbyl or trichlorfon in September. At the moment, they are still close enough to the soil surface to be sensitive to pesticides.

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Trypophobia: what it is, main symptoms, and treatment.

Nayar Malik

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Trypophobia

Trypophobia, which literally means fear of holes, is the name we give to a condition that makes certain people feel aversion or discomfort when exposed to images that create patterns of holes or bumps.

Although very popular on the Internet, trypophobia is not a disease, much less a real phobia. This condition is not recognized by the scientific community nor is it described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) of the American Psychiatric Association, which is the most widely used categorization manual for mental disorders worldwide.

It is important to note that although trypophobia is not considered a mental disorder, it does not mean that there are not millions of people who are truly uncomfortable when seeing images of small holes together, especially if they are in a biological environment, whether on human skin or in another living being (the author of this text is one of them).

In this article, we will explain what trypophobia really is, what its causes are, its symptoms, and why it is so little studied scientifically, even though it is so common.

What is Trypophobia?

If you can barely look at the images below, if you feel terrible distress, feeling uncomfortable, and even itchy skin, you probably have a so-called trypophobia.

The name trypophobia, despite seeming scientific, was created on the Internet, probably in 2009 on a Facebook page. The author of the page noticed that he felt distressed when seeing certain holes and decided to create a community to know how common he felt was common. In a short time, the page became immensely popular and the term ended up catching on.

Therefore, the word trypophobia is not a scientific term nor was it created with the intuition of describing a widely studied and clearly characterized condition. Depending on the source you search for, definitions may vary. In general, trypophobia is a feeling of aversion to grouped images of small holes or reliefs.

As already mentioned, trypophobia is more common when these images of small holes are associated with the skin or living beings, as in the photos above. As we will see later, trypophobia is more intense if it arouses in the individual a feeling of being linked to a disease or a parasite’s presence.

When we use the same geometric pattern in images that do not clearly arouse the idea of ​​skin disease, as in the images below, the number of people who report feeling uncomfortable drops a lot.

What seems to cause the discomfort are not the geometric images themselves, but the type of memory or sensation they awaken. If the patterns of holes or reliefs make the individual think of diseases, skin lesions, poisonous animal burrows, or toxic or contagious substances, trypophobia is more likely to arise.

TRIPOPHOBIA IS A REAL PHOBIA?

Trypophobia is not a real phobia. We consider phobia to be a type of anxiety disorder that is characterized by significant fear of a particular object or situation. Classically, the phobia leads the individual to behave in an uncontrolled and evasive manner, that is, to flee in fear.

The feeling of fear that a person with a phobia of cockroach, spider, height, airplane, needles, or closed places feels is infinitely more intense than the uncomfortable sensation that a set of small holes causes in most people. Seeing an uncomfortable or disgusting image may even cause some discomfort, but it will never have the same negative influence on your life that real phobias do. People who claim to have trypophobia do not lose control when they see small holes. You may not be able to look for a long time and some people report itchy skin, but the sense of panic from a real phobia does not exist in the vast majority of cases.

However, it is important to note that there is a phobia for everything. There may be people with a real fear of these little holes. However, the patient fits into what we call a specific phobia, which is a widely recognized psychiatric disorder.

SCIENTIFIC STUDIES ON TRYPOPHOBIA

Because it is not a real disease and because it does not impact people’s lives, trypophobia is a condition that has been little studied and practically ignored by psychiatrists.

The few scientific papers published have focused on the causes of this bad feeling, which apparently has an evolutionary origin.

The first study published on the subject is 2013, in the journal Psychological Science. In it, the researchers speculate that trypophobia may have an evolutionary basis, as these groups of holes share visual characteristics with venomous animals (or their dens) that humans and their ancestors have learned to avoid as a matter of survival.

A 2017 study by the Journal Cognition and Emotion suggests another theory about the origin of disgust at these holes and protrusions. The researchers believe that these geometric patterns resemble contagious or parasitic diseases that mainly affect the skin. Aversion to similar images would therefore be a defense mechanism for the individual to avoid and move away from potentially contagious skin lesions.

SYMPTOMS

The few existing studies have shown that there is a wide variety of signs and symptoms among trypophobes. In the mildest – and most common – cases, the individual reports only a feeling of aversion, with no other associated signs. In the most intense cases, the individuals studied tachycardia (fast heartbeat), damp hands, itchy body, need to rub hands on the skin, nausea, and even episodes of panic and fainting.

In the most intense cases, the association with other psychiatric disorders is very common, especially with other phobias and anxiety disorders.

TREATMENT

In the vast majority of cases, patients with trypophobia do not need any treatment, as the problem has no impact on their quality of life. If you want the images to stop bothering you, the simplest way is to see several images of holes and protrusions get your brain used to them. Over time, you end up creating tolerance. However, if the images provoke more than just a feeling of disgust, you should seek help from a psychiatrist. In such cases, treatment is basically the same as other types of phobia, through cognitive behavioral therapy.

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HEALTH

Marie Antoinette syndrome: White hair overnight

Mudassar Hassan

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Marie Antoinette syndrome

What is Marie Antoinette syndrome?

Marie Antoinette syndrome is a condition in which someone’s hair suddenly turns white. The name of this situation comes from the folklore of Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, who was rumored to be executed in 1793 and her hair suddenly turned white.

With age, hair naturally turns white. As you age, you may start to lose the melanin pigment that causes hair color. But this situation has nothing to do with age. It is related to a form of alopecia areata-a sudden hair loss. (It should also be noted that, regardless of whether the story is true or not, Marie Antoinette was only 38 years old when she died.

Although it may turn the hair gray in a relatively short period of time, this is unlikely to happen within a few minutes, which is suggested by hypothetical historical records. Learn more about the research and causes behind Marie Antoinette’s syndrome, and whether you need to see a doctor.

What did the research say about Marie Antoinette syndrome?

Research does not support the theory of sudden whitening. Despite this, legends about historical events continue to spread. According to reports, in addition to the notorious Marie Antoinette (Marie Antoinette), the hair color of other famous people in history also suddenly changed. A famous example is Thomas More, who is said to have suddenly turned white before being executed in 1535.

In another report, a report was published that recorded the witness of the sudden whitening of the hair of the survivors in the Second World War after the explosion. In literature and science fiction, the sudden change of hair color is usually psychological.

However, as Dr. Murray Feingold wrote in the MetroWest Daily, so far, no research has shown that you can lose your hair color overnight. Indeed, an article published in an article believes that reports of sudden appearance of gray hair in history are likely to be related to alopecia areata or temporary hair dye flushing.

Reasons for similar phenomena

It is generally believed that cases of the so-called Marie Antoinette syndrome are caused by autoimmune diseases. These conditions change the way your body responds to healthy cells in the body, attacking them unintentionally. If you experience symptoms similar to Marie Antoinette’s syndrome, your body will stop normal hair pigmentation. As a result, although your hair will continue to grow, its color will be gray or white.

There are other reasons that may cause the hair to turn white or white prematurely, which may be mistaken for this syndrome. Please consider the following conditions:

Alopecia Areata. 

This is one of the most obvious causes of pattern hair loss. The symptoms of alopecia areata are thought to be caused by underlying inflammation. This causes the hair follicles to stop new hair growth. Conversely, existing hair may also fall out. If you already have some gray or white hair, baldness in this case will make this loss of pigment even more pronounced. This may also give the impression that you have new pigmentation, when in fact it has become more prominent now. After treatment, new hair growth can help cover gray hair, but it does not necessarily prevent the hair from turning white.

Gene. 

If you have a family history of premature hair graying, you are likely to be at risk. According to the Mayo Clinic, there is another gene called IRF4 that can play a role. The genetic predisposition to whiten hair can make it challenging to reverse hair color changes.

Hormonal changes.

These include thyroid disease, menopause, and decreased testosterone levels. Your doctor can prescribe medications that can help you balance your hormone levels and may prevent further premature graying.

Born with dark hair. 

People with naturally dark and light-colored hair are prone to graying. However, if you have black hair, any form of hair whitening will look more compelling. This type of situation is not irreversible, but it can be dealt with with a comprehensive hair coloring and retouching kit. According to the Nemours Foundation (Nemours Foundation), all of the hair turns gray it may require more than a decade, so this is not unexpected events

Insufficient nutrition. 

The lack of vitamin B-12 is particularly to blame. You can help reverse the gray associated with nutrition by getting enough nutrition. Blood tests can help confirm such defects. It is also important to work with your doctor or even a registered dietitian.

Vitiligo. 

This autoimmune disease causes loss of skin pigment, and visible white patches may appear on your skin. This effect may extend to your hair pigment and make your hair gray. Vitiligo is difficult to treat, especially in children. Options include glucocorticoids, surgery, and phototherapy. Once the treatment has stopped the depigmentation process, you may find fewer gray hairs over time.

Can stress be brought?

Marie Antoinette’s syndrome has historically been described as the result of sudden stress. In the case of Marie Antoinette and Thomas More, their hair color changed in the last few days of jail.

However, the root cause of gray hair is much more complicated than a single incident. In fact, the change in your hair color may be related to another underlying cause.

Stress alone does not cause the hair to suddenly turn white. Over time, chronic stress may cause premature gray hair. You may also lose hair due to severe stress.

When to see the doctor

Grey hair is not necessarily a health problem. If you notice a premature gray, you can ask your doctor at the next physical examination. However, if you also experience other symptoms, such as hair loss, baldness, and rash, you may need to make an appointment.

Takeaway

Premature gray hair must be the cause of the investigation. Even if the hair cannot turn white overnight, the story of Marie Antoinette’s hair turning white before death and other similar stories continue. Instead of paying attention to these historical stories, it is important to pay attention to the current understanding of white hair by medical experts and how to deal with it.

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