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Trypophobia: what it is, main symptoms, and treatment.

Nayar Malik




Trypophobia, which literally means fear of holes, is the name we give to a condition that makes certain people feel aversion or discomfort when exposed to images that create patterns of holes or bumps.

Although very popular on the Internet, trypophobia is not a disease, much less a real phobia. This condition is not recognized by the scientific community nor is it described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) of the American Psychiatric Association, which is the most widely used categorization manual for mental disorders worldwide.

It is important to note that although trypophobia is not considered a mental disorder, it does not mean that there are not millions of people who are truly uncomfortable when seeing images of small holes together, especially if they are in a biological environment, whether on human skin or in another living being (the author of this text is one of them).

In this article, we will explain what trypophobia really is, what its causes are, its symptoms, and why it is so little studied scientifically, even though it is so common.

What is Trypophobia?

If you can barely look at the images below, if you feel terrible distress, feeling uncomfortable, and even itchy skin, you probably have a so-called trypophobia.

The name trypophobia, despite seeming scientific, was created on the Internet, probably in 2009 on a Facebook page. The author of the page noticed that he felt distressed when seeing certain holes and decided to create a community to know how common he felt was common. In a short time, the page became immensely popular and the term ended up catching on.

Therefore, the word trypophobia is not a scientific term nor was it created with the intuition of describing a widely studied and clearly characterized condition. Depending on the source you search for, definitions may vary. In general, trypophobia is a feeling of aversion to grouped images of small holes or reliefs.

As already mentioned, trypophobia is more common when these images of small holes are associated with the skin or living beings, as in the photos above. As we will see later, trypophobia is more intense if it arouses in the individual a feeling of being linked to a disease or a parasite’s presence.

When we use the same geometric pattern in images that do not clearly arouse the idea of ​​skin disease, as in the images below, the number of people who report feeling uncomfortable drops a lot.

What seems to cause the discomfort are not the geometric images themselves, but the type of memory or sensation they awaken. If the patterns of holes or reliefs make the individual think of diseases, skin lesions, poisonous animal burrows, or toxic or contagious substances, trypophobia is more likely to arise.


Trypophobia is not a real phobia. We consider phobia to be a type of anxiety disorder that is characterized by significant fear of a particular object or situation. Classically, the phobia leads the individual to behave in an uncontrolled and evasive manner, that is, to flee in fear.

The feeling of fear that a person with a phobia of cockroach, spider, height, airplane, needles, or closed places feels is infinitely more intense than the uncomfortable sensation that a set of small holes causes in most people. Seeing an uncomfortable or disgusting image may even cause some discomfort, but it will never have the same negative influence on your life that real phobias do. People who claim to have trypophobia do not lose control when they see small holes. You may not be able to look for a long time and some people report itchy skin, but the sense of panic from a real phobia does not exist in the vast majority of cases.

However, it is important to note that there is a phobia for everything. There may be people with a real fear of these little holes. However, the patient fits into what we call a specific phobia, which is a widely recognized psychiatric disorder.


Because it is not a real disease and because it does not impact people’s lives, trypophobia is a condition that has been little studied and practically ignored by psychiatrists.

The few scientific papers published have focused on the causes of this bad feeling, which apparently has an evolutionary origin.

The first study published on the subject is 2013, in the journal Psychological Science. In it, the researchers speculate that trypophobia may have an evolutionary basis, as these groups of holes share visual characteristics with venomous animals (or their dens) that humans and their ancestors have learned to avoid as a matter of survival.

A 2017 study by the Journal Cognition and Emotion suggests another theory about the origin of disgust at these holes and protrusions. The researchers believe that these geometric patterns resemble contagious or parasitic diseases that mainly affect the skin. Aversion to similar images would therefore be a defense mechanism for the individual to avoid and move away from potentially contagious skin lesions.


The few existing studies have shown that there is a wide variety of signs and symptoms among trypophobes. In the mildest – and most common – cases, the individual reports only a feeling of aversion, with no other associated signs. In the most intense cases, the individuals studied tachycardia (fast heartbeat), damp hands, itchy body, need to rub hands on the skin, nausea, and even episodes of panic and fainting.

In the most intense cases, the association with other psychiatric disorders is very common, especially with other phobias and anxiety disorders.


In the vast majority of cases, patients with trypophobia do not need any treatment, as the problem has no impact on their quality of life. If you want the images to stop bothering you, the simplest way is to see several images of holes and protrusions get your brain used to them. Over time, you end up creating tolerance. However, if the images provoke more than just a feeling of disgust, you should seek help from a psychiatrist. In such cases, treatment is basically the same as other types of phobia, through cognitive behavioral therapy.

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Claims in foot/ankle surgery- What should you do?

Adeel Mehmood



Claims in foot/ankle surgery

Surgical procedures do not always turn out to be the way they should be and the damages caused due to the patient can be life-threatening and might cause loss of enjoyment of life. Our foot and ankle are the important organs of our body that help in walking and running. So any kind of injury to your ankle and foot can have devastating impacts. Surgical treatment will be advised only when the other non-surgical treatments fail to improve your condition. There are several conditions that might affect your ankle and foot. Though most of them don’t require surgery some critical cases may necessitate surgical treatments. Your orthopedic surgeon will ask you for surgery if:

  • There are pain and inflammation
  • Non-surgical treatments fail to respond. This includes over-the-counter medications, physiotherapies, and orthotics.
  • Mobility and function gets affected on a serious level

Some other conditions that require surgery are- fractures, arthritis, Achilles tendon tear, and toe deformities. Foot surgeries are considered safe but sometimes it becomes necessary for improving the patient’s health. But there might be instances when the conditions can get worse after surgery. This happens when the surgeon fails to provide an adequate level of care or their treatment falls below the accepted medical standards. Patients who have suffered losses or damages can file a medical malpractice lawsuit against the surgeon and get compensation with the help of a legal representative and an orthopedic expert witness.

What is medical malpractice and when can you hold a surgeon accountable for their acts?

Medical malpractice takes place when the patient sustains injuries as a result of the negligence of the doctor, medical professional, and other healthcare officials by deviating from the accepted standards of medical care. In foot or ankle surgery, malpractices might take place due to negligence by the doctor. Medical malpractices might happen in one of the following manner/manners.

Before surgery

There’s a process that both patients and surgeons go through before finally sending the patient to the operation theatre. It’s the duty of the surgeon to get informed consent from the patient- meaning to say that the patient should orally and in writing gives their approval to the doctor to perform the surgery. Before that, the surgeon must explain the procedure, get all the previous medical history of the patient, and finally should explain the pros and cons of getting the surgery. If the patient gives their approval, then the surgeon can go ahead. But if these procedures are not followed, the patient can bring a medical negligence claim against the surgeon.

During surgery

Errors that might happen during the surgery include- cutting the wrong organ, injuring nerves during surgery, leaving a foreign object inside the patient’s body like instruments or sponges, performing incisions at the wrong site, anesthesia errors, and others. Consider talking to an experienced attorney if you face these injuries during surgery.

After surgery

Providing adequate care after surgery is very important at all stages of surgery. After the operation is done, the doctor should keep the patient under observation and should provide antibiotics or other medications to reduce pain and inflammation. Careful medical care after surgery is important to ensure the speedy and healthy recovery of the patient. Sometimes the patients are discharged too early after surgery that results in worsening of the condition. Medical practitioners may have to face the heat of the court if adequate care is not given!

If you’ve been a victim of foot and ankle surgery malpractice, you should immediately seek legal help to get your deserving compensation.

Retaining orthopedic expert witnesses for foot and ankle surgery:

Once you’ve contacted a lawyer, they’ll try to determine if there is a case of malpractice. Just because the outcome was not in your favor, does not mean that the surgeon is at fault. It is at this stage where an orthopedic surgeon expert witness is retained by the attorney.

These expert witnesses will first go through the case in detail to establish if there has been a case of malpractice. Once it is proved that the surgeon was at fault, the lawsuit will be filed against the surgeon. Moreover, they’ll prepare a written document based on the case findings. This is an important piece of evidence that might be presented to the court. The facts written by the expert witness need to be scientifically correct and clinically proven. Judges are not expected to have the knowledge of medical issues; their opinions play an incredible role. Medical malpractice cases are highly technical and courts usually do not refuse the opinion provided by these experts. At times, it is found that malpractice cases are lost because of not producing these witnesses. Retaining an orthopedic expert witness is important for both parties.

An important thing to note here is that the opinion of these experts is not binding on the court. The main role of an expert witness is to provide all the necessary materials and put forward all the case records with logic and scientifically proven facts so that the jury can decide on the final outcome of the case. In other words, these experts are called to provide evidence but they cannot form their own judgments based on their own observations.

An orthopedic surgery expert witness is called upon to testify and provide deposition services. As it is quite evident that the role of expert witnesses in foot/ankle surgery is highly beneficial, it’s important to retain the best expert witness. They should posses all the qualities- experience, certification, and should have brilliant speaking skills to persuade the decision makers, and lastly, they should have the capability to negate claims put forward by the defense.

Final words-

If you believe that you or your loved ones have been a victim of medical negligence, you should immediately get in touch with an experienced lawyer as they have complete knowledge of the legal procedures. Moreover, they have good channels of network with these expert witnesses required for the case. By retaining a lawyer, you can win the case and get your deserving compensation!

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Some Issues about Iguana Food

Mudassar Hassan



Iguana Food

People who think that iguanas only need to be given lettuce as food would be very wrong in their assumptions. Feeding an iguana has a lot of issues involved and a good iguana owner should learn as much as possible about these issues. Here is a guide to help you with some of the issues surrounding iguana food:

1) Vegetables – ther5e are guides which still say that iguanas should be fed insects and they may eat cat and dog-food. The fact remains, however, that iguanas have bodies that are designed for effective consumption of plant protein. That means that your iguana is better off as a vegetarian. Iguana food should consist of vegetables that have high nutritional value such as collards or mustard greens. Occasionally feeding it lettuce is okay but you should not regularly do this since most types of salad lettuce contain very little nutritional value.

Why is an iguana better off eating vegetables? Well, an iguana will have a hard time processing animal proteins. This task requires a lot of work from the kidneys. This means that an iguana which is fed animal protein has a high chance of developing kidney problems. Animal proteins are also hard to absorb. Often, unabsorbed animal proteins are stored in the iguana’s body as uric acid this may lead to gout.

So, now you know why iguana food should consist of as much veggies as possible.

2) Water – iguanas tend to drink water only sparingly. If you do not have enough humidity in the enclosure, this would mean that your iguana will spend most of its days at least partially dehydrated. This can be bad for your iguana.

An owner should try to get an iguana to drink as much water as possible. Since iguanas are not naturally inclined to do this, you should take some steps to accomplish it. One way is to spray your iguana food with water. This way, the iguana will get the moisture it needs when it is feeding.

Another good idea is to try and train your iguana to drink as much water as possible. You can do this by placing a treat inside the iguana’s water dish. Do this regularly and soon, you will be able to train your iguana to drink from the bowl on its own.

3) Temperature – iguanas are cold blooded. This means that they depend on the heat of the environment for their bodily functions. No matter how good the iguana food you provide, the iguana will not be able to properly digest it without the proper temperature. After feeding, the temperature in the enclosure should be kept at least 85 degrees Fahrenheit. This will aid in the proper digestion of iguana food. You can also use ceramic heat emitter.

4) Calcium and phosphorus – When choosing iguana food, an owner should always keep in mind that iguanas need calcium and phosphorus in a 2:1 ratio. This means that you should try to choose foods that contain these nutrients.

5) Reptile light – another issue about iguana food is the need for proper lighting. Iguanas need UVA and UVB rays to produce vitamin D3. This nutrient facilitates the proper absorption of calcium in the body. There are actually many types of artificial lighting that provide these rays, but the best source is still the sun. So if you want your pet to absorb the nutrients in the iguana food properly, make sure that you let it bask in direct sunlight as much as possible.

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June bug: How to get rid of the June bug or Green June Beetle

Nayar Malik



june bug

Relaxing with a drink on the pouch is when you suddenly get stiff and hit a flying bug. Looking down, you can see that the culprit is a beetle, more specifically a June bug. These pests are attracted to the lights you have, but they can’t do much harm to you, but they can annoy your deck on early summer nights. But your landscape is not so lucky.

What are the June bugs?

Part of the problem when discussing the “June bug” is that this common name is fooled in two ways.

  • Many different insects pass by this common name, but not all of them destroy the landscape of all parts of the Northern Hemisphere equally.
  • Different common names are used even when discussing a particular species. “June Bug” is the most popular in some areas, but in other areas “June Beetle” or “May Beetle” may be used.

All bug species in June are considered scarab beetles, all starting in the form of larvae known as “larvae” and all appearing as adults in the garden from late spring to early summer. Both adults and larvae can damage the landscape. However, keep in mind that not all beetles are bad. Lady beetles ( Hippodamia convergence ) are very beneficial.

Junebug grabs are most famous for damaging the lawn (living underground, eating grassroots, and causing lawn withering), but adults can eat leaves, shrubs, vegetables, and more. The damage caused by adults varies from region to region as well as from year to year. For example, in the years of New England (USA), one of the bugs in June, Japanese beetles ( Popilia japonica ) devastate pumpkins in your garden, but strangely in other years. You may be absent.

The insect most strongly associated with the common name “Junebug” is Phyllophaga longispina. Unless otherwise stated, Phyllophaga spp is used. What we’re dealing with here (although most of the information applies equally to other types of June bugs).

Signs of problem (even if you can’t see the beetles or larvae)

There are several indicators that may be a problem for adults or their larvae in June.

  • There is a brown patch on the lawn.
  • A small hole is dug in the lawn overnight. These holes are often made by scanks looking for their food source, grabs.
  • Mole also eats larvae, so if you have a mole problem, the cause may be the larvae.
  • There are holes in the leaves of some plants.

Track their detection by monitoring the landscape for such signs and confirming the presence of these insects. To confirm the presence of grabs, dig grass in the lawn and examine the soil for greyish caterpillar-like insects that vary in length from less than an inch to just over an inch (“C“ Disturbance ”. Inch shape “. To make sure there are adults, walk faithfully through the landscape and look for beetles on the leaves of the plant.

Taking effective and timely action is a great way to prevent problems caused by the June bug and its problems.

The best way to get rid of June bugs

The “best” way in this case is the method rather than the timing focus. Do not wait for adult beetles to appear before performing pest control. It is much better to target the larvae than to try to kill an adult. The larvae are contained in a defined space under the grass. This makes it easy to erase everything. In contrast, adults as flying insects can be anywhere.

The life cycle of a bug in June varies from species to species, but the typical scenario is:

  • Females lay eggs on the lawn in midsummer.
  • The grab quickly hatches and remains near the soil surface until it falls.
  • They dig deep into the ground for the winter.
  • They come out of the ground as adult beetles in the spring.

To kill the larvae, spray an insecticide containing carbyl or trichlorfon in September. At the moment, they are still close enough to the soil surface to be sensitive to pesticides.

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