Geneticists from all over the world intend to carry out hundreds of thousands of genetic analyzes to find out what distinguishes the patients who evolve worse
Since the start of the pandemic, everyone has been wondering why the same virus causes such different reactions. While many people do not even know they are infected, others end up in the ICU, and thousands are dying. Some risk factors are clear: advanced age and suffering from other diseases mean that we buy more ballots to suffer a more serious version of Covid-19, but being young and healthy does not guarantee that we will get rid of it either.
Geneticists have thought that their specialty has a lot to contribute, that the different faces of the disease could be related to genetic variability between some individuals and others, as it is in other diseases. Could it be the same with the new coronavirus? To find out, experts have created The Covid-19 Host Genetics Initiative, an international platform to push forward studies on coronavirus patients and share the results. Knowing whether genes make a patient more vulnerable can be key in prognosis and treatment, and would end up saving many lives.
Of these, there will be 7,000 Spaniards and another 1,000 from the United Kingdom, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Colombia that will serve to identify whether the possible genetic markers found are characteristic of Spain or not. In principle, they will not study the complete genome of each individual but certain markers (what is technically called the ‘complete genome association study’ or GWAS). Later, they will sequence 300 complete genomes to analyze in detail the alterations found.
“When we talk about genes, one thinks of rare diseases or cancer, but all human pathologies are the result of the environment and of the person, and also in viral infections, genetics has a lot to say,” explains Pablo Lapunzina in statements to Teknautas. An individual’s genetic information “can make their response to an infection different and even prevent them from becoming infected.” The case of HIV is well known, especially since in November 2018 a Chinese scientist announced that he had genetically modified human embryos to make them resistant, which is why he was later convicted.
With respect to Covid-19, “we are facing a viral infection that should be banal because of every 100 people, close to 80% are asymptomatic, nor do they find out that they were sick, 10 or 15% feel greasy and only one 5% have a severe illness, so it is clear that the individual response is quite different, “says Pablo Lapunzina.
“Without a doubt, the genetic variants have to do with increased risks or protection against the disease, ” he says, although the answer will probably be very complex, the key will not be in a single gene. Many small differences may explain why some people who come in contact with the virus develop serious illness, while most have flu-like symptoms or not even that. “It is also quite likely that there will be people who will not directly become infected even if they are in contact with the virus because it cannot enter the cells, but this will be more difficult to prove,” he says.
As he explains, there is already some data that indicates that the European population could have a greater predisposition to be attacked by the virus, in particular, “variants in the ACE receptors of cells with respect to Asian populations.” The data says that mortality in China was very low compared to that recorded in Europe and, “apart from the fact that epidemiological policies to control the disease have been different, these receptors are likely to be decisive,” he says.
However, it will take hundreds of thousands of patients to confirm that these subtle genetic differences protect or make people more vulnerable. The international consortium aims to reach 150,000. The problem is to make a balanced and correct selection of the participants. “We need to have people who have been infected and have been asymptomatic, and this must be verified with antibody tests; also to others who have been regular, with fever and few more signs of illness, and others who, in the same situation, have been serious or have died, apparently without risk factors, “he explains.
The healthy young man who ends up in the ICU
All the projects included in The Covid-19 Host Genetics Initiative will provide minimal information that is useful for data sharing, but each one has its own particular characteristics. For example, another Spaniard focuses on patients under the age of 60 without other diseases. Led by the CSIC’s Barcelona Institute for Biomedical Research (IIBB), it will focus on 200 patients waiting to obtain more funding.
“We are interested in all patients, but obviously age and previous pathologies are more vulnerable even to the normal flu, so when doing a genetic study, they could lead us to confusion,” says Anna Planas, coordinator of this study. “In the normal population, there are polymorphisms or genetic variations that normally do not entail any pathology, but in the face of a viral infection, there may be people with a poorer response capacity and we can better identify this factor if we focus the study on people initially healthy ”, he highlights.
Already in the first coronavirus epidemic, the SARS epidemic of 2002-2003, some studies pointed out that having certain polymorphisms could increase the susceptibility to severe forms of the disease. However, they were performed with very few patients and almost primitive genetic tools compared to current means. “This encouraged us to think that with the advances of today, we could further explore this issue,” says the researcher.
In Granada, Marta Alarcón Riquelme, a scientist at the Center for Genomics and Oncology Research (Genyo), also wondered why young and middle-aged people developed bilateral pneumonia that characterizes the worst version of Covid-19 and, in particular, by that in the worst cases an inflammation occurs that complicates the condition of the patients.
The challenge of explaining decisive inflammation
In fact, physicians agree to observe a common characteristic among Covid-19 cases that have evolved poorly. Generally, in a first phase, patients have symptoms that could be assimilated to those of the flu, but after a few days, something goes wrong and the immune system overreacts, causing what is called a ‘cytokine storm’, proteins that they should fight the infection but in this case, they cause an inflammation of the organs, especially the lungs.
“We want to know if there is any type of predisposition that is not clinically evident, inflammatory processes that we can detect in DNA by looking for gene expression markers through what is called methylation, and identify possible genetic associations that tell us about a susceptibility to develop more severe disease, “says Marta Alarcón. For example, “I can have a gene with a variant that causes more cytokines to be produced, so the response is going to be greater.” Therefore, it is not about having or not having a gene, but about quantitative changes.
The key is to compare, among hospitalized patients, those who have a worse evolution with those who better overcome the disease. For this, the Genyo is already recruiting patients and the initial idea is to carry out the study with 1,300 participants, in collaboration with other geneticists from Valladolid, Barcelona, Malaga, and Milan.
Although within the international consortium ” 90% of the groups still do not have data “, because they are looking for patients who can participate, Alarcón regrets the bureaucratic obstacles that have prevented him from speeding up the process. “Unfortunately, I have a limit of 15,000 euros to buy material. From this figure, I have to open a public offer that may take a while and I cannot start at this time because we are with the administrative deadlines closed. ” Meanwhile, “in the United States, they are already ahead.”
The application of the results
With more or less Spanish input, experts are confident that the international consortium as a whole will provide decisive data to fight the new coronavirus and that the results can be applied on several fronts. For example, “if a person becomes ill, with a genetic study we would know in 24 hours if their risk is high or low, and based on that we could decide on their income, their follow-up or even analyze the risk that their relatives run”, Lapunzina comments.
On the other hand, genetic information can also be decisive in treatment. First, in the search for new compounds or drugs that are already on the market and can be reused. On the other, to guide the medication of each patient. In fact, something similar happened until recently with hepatitis C – before new treatments became available – patients’ genetic markers were studied to find out who would respond to available treatments. It was a simple study that cost 16 euros and anticipated the effect of the drugs.
“Today, a patient is admitted and ‘a priori’ it is not possible to know if after four days he will go home or have to be admitted to the ICU, there is nothing that can predict this, ” says Anna Planas. However, after these studies, “in an ideal situation, we would find a key gene and know that people who had some variants of it would be more likely to develop a more serious disease.” The reality will be more complicated, but the CSIC researcher believes that “a test could be carried out on the general population with a drop of blood”, knowing that “if a person has a certain polymorphism, he is part of the population that must be to protect”.
The researcher believes that this could also be revolutionary in relation to epidemiological policies. “At the moment, we are talking theoretically, but if we had the entire population studied, we would know what percentage is at risk,” he says. In this sense, it would be possible to develop an epidemiological strategy that would not go through “blind” confinement like the current one, since “we do not know which are the biomarkers that cause us to pass the infection asymptomatically and which are the ones that cause us to be at serious risk ”, but it could be done much more selectively.
However, not everything will be in the genes. For example, among the population differences, there is the fact that men accumulate many more serious cases and deaths. The researchers do not rule out that massive genetic analyzes give any answer, but they believe that it most likely has nothing to do with it. “There are many variables, men tend to be more overweight, hypertensive, and have diabetes. And surely there is a hormonal factor, it seems that women’s estrogens protect a little more. If you remove all those factors, it is likely that the genetic difference between men and women will not make much difference, “Lapunzina points out.
How Do Other Mental Health Conditions Relate to Substance Use in Adolescents?
Often, people who deal with substance abuse are regarded as mentally ill. A teenager who has been using drugs for quite some time will usually have anxiety, panic attacks, depression, behavioral issues, and learning difficulties. If you look closer into their personal lives, they might also have family problems or live in a harmful environment.
Drug use and mental health conditions can be associated with each other since one is likely to follow the other. Teens might think that drugs will cure their emotional and behavioral issues due to their “high” and relaxing effects. However, these substances only last a few hours or a day. When drugs are used, the brain and physical health is severely affected.
This is why a reliable teen drug rehab facility treats someone’s substance abuse issues while addressing their mental health disorder at the same time.
The Relation between Substance Use and Mental Problems
It has been scientifically proven that around half of the people who deal with substance abuse also suffer from mental disorders. Substance use is commonly seen in anxiety disorders, panic disorders, depression, bipolar disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorders. Fortunately, all of these issues are treatable nowadays. Being able to recognize the signs that something might be going on with your teen is essential, so let us see how to identify them:
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Although it is common, especially during this pandemic, to feel anxious due to life uncertainties, whether in school or work, drug users are entirely overwhelmed by anxiety, which prevents them from being productive for long periods. This condition is called generalized anxiety disorder. Its symptoms are constant worrying, overthinking everything, extreme pessimism, seeing daily situations as threatening, indecisiveness, feeling restless, and having difficulty focusing.
Physical symptoms are fatigue, trembling, muscle aches, over-sweating, trouble sleeping, irritability, diarrhea, nausea, and irritable bowel syndrome. These may lead to poor performance at school, work, or even at home. The response should be to verify this condition by an expert promptly.
- Panic Disorder
Panic attacks are common for people who had traumatic experiences in the past or, simply, consumed drugs. A panic attack is composed of random thoughts of fear that result in extreme physical reactions. Due to the severity of these reactions, you might think that the patient has had a heart attack or worse. The patients need immediate assistance during their panic attacks. Most people have a panic attack once or twice in their whole life, but people with mental health disorders suffer from them constantly. If you or an adolescent you know needs teen mental health treatment in Los Angeles, do the necessary research to get them help.
Despite its scary physical effects, there are effective medications to treat this problem. Signs are a sense of imminent danger even when there is none, uncontrollable fear of loss and death, sweating, chills, trembling, hot flashes, pounding heart rate, headache, nausea, dizziness, feeling of detachment, numbness, abdominal cramping, and shortness of breath. Those with panic disorder are often scared of when their next attack will happen, so seeking treatment is a must.
Depression leads a considerable part of the teenage population into using drugs. Nowadays, given that people might still be in lockdown, the cases of depression are on the rise. It is a mood disorder that makes the patient constantly feel sad and empty. It is mentally and physically draining and ruins productivity.
Depression is not a phase, and no one can escape from it by simply cheering up. It requires a series of treatment procedures, aiming for a long-time result. The symptoms that a patient may manifest daily are feelings of emptiness, complete loss of interest in everything, loss of appetite, irritability, frustration, restlessness, tiredness, insomnia or oversleeping, anxiety, agitation, feelings of worthlessness and guilt, concentration issues, suicidal thoughts — or worse, suicide — and other physical problems like back pains and headaches. Depression creates very noticeable symptoms, especially in people who used to be more active and lively.
- Bipolar Disorder
This type of mental illness was formerly known as a manic disorder. It is a condition where a patient has extreme mood swings. This includes emotional highs and lows. Depressed people can also have bipolar disorder since the two are closely related. The good news is that this disorder can be controlled with counseling and treatments.
Here are its symptoms: being abnormally upbeat and jumpy, a decreased need for sleep, overconfidence, excessive talkativeness, being easily distracted, racing thoughts, increased energy, depressed mood, visible loss of interest, insomnia or sleeping too much, restlessness, or slow behavior, significant weight loss, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness, indecisiveness, loss of focus, and suicide attempts.
- Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
Also known as PTSD, this mental health condition results from a very frightening event that left a trauma on the patient. Common symptoms are flashbacks, fear, and severe anxiety. This mental health disease may appear months or years after the event. These intrusive memories constantly come back to their mind, giving them feelings of unease and anxiousness. They can be seen having nightmares and sudden panic attacks.
As you can see, mental health issues are closely related to each other. Many of their symptoms, such as anxiety, are familiar to every problem. Proper diagnosis by consulting a doctor is a good step towards recovery.
Please note that this list of mental disorders is not exhaustive. These are the five most common mental health issues among adolescents that are highly associated with substance abuse. Now you know how to recognize whether your teen potentially has a mental health problem or not.
However, it is always safer to talk to a doctor. Never conclude that your child has a mental problem without getting the advice of a health professional. The next part will address the chances of mentally ill individuals becoming substance abusers once they reach adolescence.
Increased Risk of Substance Abuse Due to Mental Disorders
According to the US National Institutes of Health, children who have mental disorders have more chances of becoming addicted to drugs and alcohol. They emphasize that prompt and effective medication during their youth will significantly reduce this risk.
Almost one-third of children who turn 18 are casual drinkers and illegal drugs users. This is why early interventions for behavioral and psychological disorders are now used to prevent drug misuse.
The Substance Use and Abuse Problems in Teens
The household environment is a significant factor in this problem. Parents and peers who smoke, as well as poor self-confidence, poor problem-solving skills, and easy access to substances, are only a few of the many reasons why teens turn to drugs for courage and escapism. An alarming survey result from the NIH showed that 22.3% of high school students have easy access to marijuana. More than 40% of high school students have confessed that they have tried marijuana once or twice in their whole life.
As explained by the experts, substance use negatively affects a teen’s brain development. It leads to promiscuity, accidents, fights, and in the worst-case scenario, overdoses. The teenage phase is one of the hardest in life, as it is a stage full of hardships both in school and at home. This is when family problems, relationship failures, and cases of underachievement tend to occur.
If you reside in Los Angeles and believe that your child might be dealing with addiction or mental issues, find an expert to speak with at a teen treatment program.
Getting Help With Sleep
If you have tried everything to get a great night’s sleep, finding the best mattress should be high on your priority list. Ensure that you read plenty of reviews including these Zinus complaints to make an informed decision and start your journey to great sleep. For a little help there are many remedies that you can try.
This is one of the most common minerals you will find on Earth. It’s completely natural and our body needs it. However, when taken as a supplement, it can help to boost serotonin levels to aid with sleeping. It works by binding to the neurotransmitter receptors in your brain. This helps to calm your mind and body, lower cortisol levels, and allow you to fall asleep much easier.
You can get magnesium through supplementation or diet. By getting sufficient amounts of it, you can minimize any issues you’ve had with your internal body clock being out of sync.
This is a naturally occurring chemical that you will find in your body. It’s also known as L-5 hydroxytryptophan.
You will find this chemical in a lot of different foods. One being turkey which is why you tend to fall asleep after Thanksgiving meals. You will also find it in seeds, nuts, beans, oats, and tofu . It is something that can put you to sleep quickly. It can also boost your sleep time. As soon as you eat it, your body converts it into serotonin. This is a chemical that is converted to melatonin to tell your body it’s time to sleep.
This is a plant that is filled to the brim with helpful nutrients. It’s one of the best ingredients when used as a natural remedy to deal with stomach problems. It is also good for heart health, minimizing stress levels, and it even has antioxidant properties making it effective against cancerous cells.
Along with this, these berries can contain some of the most powerful phytochemicals which are known to help with insomnia.
This is one of the most effective sleep-inducing supplements you will find in the marketplace. It can be naturally found in various tea leaves. The amino acid helps with sleep because it increases serotonin levels in your brain. It increases dopamine and GABA levels too. It facilitates the release of alpha brain waves which are heavily present during the deepest part of your sleep known as the REM stage. Thus, it can promote better sleep and better relaxation.
The kava plant is great for helping with sleep. It is typically used to reduce stress levels and to promote better relaxation. This plant contains a lot of chemical compounds that are effective at binding to neurotransmitters in the brain. This includes the GABA receptors that can decrease total brain activity which can help whenever you are looking to go to sleep.
6. Passion Flower
This is another good one for helping with sleep. It’s a great aid for those that suffer from anxiety. It can reduce anxiety and help give you a sense of calmness that can help with your ability to fall asleep. Like the other natural remedies in this article, this one also helps to boost GABA levels and reduce overall brain activity making it easier to fall asleep.
This is a supplement that has been used for thousands of years to help with various sleeping problems. This root can be very effective at helping you fall asleep because it reduces brain activity and it can help to quiet your central nervous system at night. Thus, it can make it much easier to calm yourself and fall asleep.
What is a Japanese garden? and types of Japanese gardens.
What is a Japanese Garden?
The roots of the world-famous and widespread art event such as the Japanese garden today are lost in the darkness of ancient traditions. However, it is generally believed that with the adoption of Buddhism, a conscious garden art based on design principles began to be emphasized, and there is an average of 1500 years of Japanese garden art. Although Japanese gardens include many man-made landscape elements, they include the design that symbolizes nature with all its features and depicts its mystery with a philosophical expression. However, Japanese garden art has an understanding of absolute realism and naturalism,
One of the strongest and most distinctive features of Japanese philosophy is its interpretation of the relationship between nature and human beings. Nature is taken as a separate element of equal importance to man.
Japan has a temperate climate and a wonderful landscape. All these have brought the Japanese nation closer to nature. Maybe that’s why the Japanese have been nature lovers since ancient times. They believe that the condition of living in peace is not to oppose nature or to belittle these beauties that their country has bestowed upon them, but to assimilate nature.
Japanese garden art, which draws its inspiration from nature, such as painting and poetry, has three common elements. Rock, water, and plant. In Japanese garden design, we see that the synthesis of the natural landscape takes shape abstractly. In this understanding, the aim of garden art is to make the beauties perceived from the natural landscape with human effort. The Japanese have tried their skills at all scales and species, from national parks to a miniature forest grown in a single pot.
Japanese Garden Types
Japanese Garden by Form
The types of Japanese garden is divided into two.
- Hill gardens (Tsukiyama)
- Flat gardens (Hira-niwa )
It consists of hills and lakes. These gardens have formed the basis of the gardens belonging to the nobles for centuries. Water is the most important element of the garden and is found in various forms in the garden. It can be found in the form of lakes, streams, and waterfalls. The garden features hills, stones, and plants that support the water view. All this has been cleverly designed in a certain harmony and balance. Hill gardens are placed in front of the main building to cover a large area. An ideal Japanese landscape is a combination of mountain and water elements, as in hill gardens. The direction of water flow is important in hill gardens. If possible, the flow direction of the water should be in the east-west direction.
Hill gardens are divided into 5 styles among themselves.
These; the ocean, stream, valley, swamp, and reed landscapes.
All these styles emerge with the use of stones in various ways to provide the desired landscape.
It is a style mostly used for planning flat areas between various buildings.
For a long time, both garden types developed together, and the selection was made according to the condition of the land. Especially in the times when the tea ceremony became a tradition, another variety from the flat garden type emerged, it is called chaniwa.
Four main garden styles emerged from the two main garden types, namely hill and flat gardens.
- Dry Stone Garden (Kare-sansui)
- Tea Garden (Chaniwa)
- Promenade Garden (Kaiyu-teien)
- Miniature Garden (Hako-niwa)
Dry Stone Japanese Garden (Square – Sansui)
One of the greatest developments in the history of the Japanese garden is the development of dry stone gardens. It developed at the end of the Muromachi Period. It is known as the classical form of Zen gardens.
The main elements in these gardens are rocks and stones. In this garden style, a strong water expression is created with no water, rock, gravel, and raked sand. The aim of Dry Stone Gardens is to create a large space in small areas. The biggest reason why this type of garden is considered unique in the history of garden art; is due to the fact that it gives the maximum effect with the least element that can be used. Dry Stone Gardens are poor in appearance but rich in content.
Many factors have been effective in the development of dry gardens.
- Economic Factors – After the Onin Revolution, a great deal of money went into the restoration of temples. Therefore, it was difficult to build large water gardens of the 15th century and karesansui type gardens were preferred.
- Water Resources – The difficulty in finding water resources, which have a very important place in the construction of water gardens, has pushed designers to create gardens where water is not used.
- Spiritual needs and Aesthetic Preferences of Zen Priests – Zen ideas in symbolism have produced dry gardens. Zen monks preferred deep narratives in simplicity. Therefore, perceiving the sound of water in the white sand had a mystical meaning appealing to the Zen spirit, and this was the most important feature of dry stone gardens.
- Proximity in Zen Architecture and Shoin Chamber Architecture – During this period, the temporary residences (hojo) of the high priests were built in the shoin style. The entire surface and patio was covered with tatami. As a result, they needed a landscape view close to the building that they could see from inside the dwelling. Therefore, Karesansui gardens, which do not take up much space and keep the streams and mountains alive in its small area, were preferred.
Dry Stone Japanese Garden Examples
Ryoanji Japanese Garden
The stone garden of the Ryoanji temple in Kyoto is one of the most beautiful and rare examples of this type. The Ryoanji temple garden was built in 1499 by the painter and gardener Saomi. It is the world’s most well-known of Japanese gardens.
10m wide, 30m long. One side is the veranda of the temple and the other 3 sides are surrounded by an earthen wall with a tiled roof. It consists of 15 large and small rocks placed on flat ground, covered with coarse-grained white sand. The rock groups consisted of 5, 2, 3, 2, and 3 rocks each. There is no other plant in the garden other than the moss formed over time.
An asymmetrical balance has been established, and rock groups have created certain dynamism within themselves and with other groups. The simple beauty of the garden evokes philosophical thought. This arrangement, in which fine white sand replaces water, creates one of the most elegant arrangements ever to be found. Because it evokes the movements of water flowing in different directions. Here, the landscape, complete with stacked stones, represents a tigress and her cub swimming on the river trying to escape the danger of the water.
Ryoanji Garden stands above all other Japanese gardens in terms of design. No one but the trained gardener can enter the garden.
Even walking around the garden is prohibited; one can just stop and contemplate. “Shinzo”, one of the Zen monks who lived in the 16th century, stated the philosophy in this garden was ‘to travel 30,000 miles in a single step’. Another Zen monk of the period described the garden with the words, “It cannot tire anyone to watch this type of garden, and one finds himself in a realm of thoughts without realizing the time spent here.”
Daisen-in Japanese Garden
It is a typical example of Kare-Sansui, made in Kyoto in 1513 by the priest Soho and the painter Soami. A section of 30 m 2 more 70 m 2 ‘is a ligand L-shaped spectacle garden.
The arrangement is created with symbols. Its soil is arid, and the impression of water created by fine stones contrasts with a bed of sand and moss vegetation. This masterfully designed garden was built not to be stepped into, but to be watched from the veranda. It is the most perfect type of illusion garden, that is, a ‘visual’ garden.
In the background is a mountain of pruned bushes. This image is highlighted by two standing rocks. There is a waterfall on the right. On the left is the turtle island made up of rocks and on the right is the crane island. The water pouring from the waterfall is symbolized by white-toothed sand. This symbolism stems from the Zen philosophy of reaching nothingness.
One of Japan’s most famous stones can be seen here. It resembles sailing ships in China and has been floating in a dry landscape river since the 1500s as a symbol of the passage of human life.
The karesansui gardens, which developed towards the end of the Muromachi period, are an entirely new style. It spread from Daitokuji and Myoshinji to the Monasteries of Gozan and from there to temples in the provinces. Its influence was also seen in the Zen-style monasteries of other sects in Kyoto.
Japanese Tea Garden
Tea garden style
This style, which first appeared in the Muromachi Period, reached its peak in the Momoyama and Edo periods, especially in the Edo Period, tea gardens were adopted as a garden style.
Tea philosophy, called Teaism, is not just an aestheticism but expresses views on humanity and nature through the partnership of morality and religion. Teaism is healthy because it requires cleanliness, economics because it shows peace in simplicity rather than complexity and expensiveness, moral geometry because it describes a sense of proportion to the universe. In short, it represents the true spirit of Eastern Democracy. Strangely enough, humanity has only ever met in a teacup. The tea ceremony is the only Asian ceremony that presupposes universal respect.
First tea room
The first independent tea room was the work of Sen no Soeki, the greatest of the tea masters, better known as Rikyu, who set the formalities of the 16th century Tea Ceremony and brought it to a high level of excellence. The tea room is quite plain in appearance. It is smaller than the smallest Japanese house, and the materials used in its construction evoke particularly refined poverty.
However, it should not be forgotten that all this is the result of deep artistic foreknowledge, and more attention was paid to all the details than to the construction of the richest palaces and temples. A good tea room costs more than a normal mansion. Because the craftsmanship and the selected materials require great attention and care. The simplicity and purity of the tea room are the results of imitating the Zen Monastery.
The arrangement of the garden part where the tea room is located is also under the deep influence of the tea philosophy. Tea gardens, called Chanhva, are a small venue in a Japanese garden where tea ceremonies are held.
In this garden, which is gathered for the purpose of drinking tea, it is possible to come across a tea house, a study room, a covered waiting area, and Japanese garden elements such as water bowls, stone oil lamps, and stepping stones. When entering the garden, guests are directed to the waiting bench with stepping stones. After washing hands and mouth in water bowls, guests go to the tea room.
Anyone who has walked this garden path can’t help but wonder how his soul is lightened and risen above everyday thoughts as he passes over the neat irregularity of the path stones, through the dawn of evergreens with dried pine needles, and past the musty-covered granite lanterns. The ingenuity of tea masters creating these effects of purity and tranquility is indeed great.
Tea gardens appear as gate gardens (roji) for the first time in Japanese history. They are built in narrow spaces between buildings. What is important here is what is felt while passing through this area. From the moment guests step into the garden, they participate in the tea ceremony. The tea gardens are designed in such a way that the guests can give their full attention to the act of walking. That’s why stepping stones used in the garden are very important.
Starting from the Muromachi Period, many tea gardens were built. After the retirement of Sen no Rikyu’s eldest son, Sotan, the family tradition was divided into 3 schools, and each of them was headed by Satan’s son. These are the Ura Senke, Mushanokoji Senke and Omote Senke Tea Schools. Zangetsutei and Fushin’an Omote Senke tea houses in Kyoto are known as the best examples of their era.
Zangetsutei is a Shoin type building, with living room-style tea rooms inside, Fushin’an is connected to Zangetsutei from the east wing by a wooden floor corridor. Guests at the tea ceremony enter this house through a square wooden shutter that opens from the back. Inside is a room with only 3 tatami mats. Jagged, split pillars and mud walls are distinctive rural symbols determined by the wealth and power of this era.
The emergence of the ride gardens, known as Kaiyushiki, dates back to the 17th century. It has emerged by combining the rural nature of the tea garden and the visual beauties of the old paradise gardens. Kaiyushiki includes almost all traditional design elements. Pools, mountains, islands, streams, bridges, lighthouses, and jumping stones are design elements used in this type of garden. The aim is to allow the visitors to have a good time by walking around the whole garden.
The main element in this type of garden is the pools with their islands. There is a path that goes around the pool. This road gives visitors a tour of the whole park, using jumping stones or a bridge when necessary, allowing the visitor to slow down and perceive the sights that require attention.
Pictures have been the source of earlier garden designs, so earlier garden styles tended to be pictorial, whereas we cannot say this for promenade gardens. Because the trend in this type of gardens is music. In this, it is effective that the garden includes the act of acting as in the tea gardens. Of course, the designers gave importance to the elements used in the garden, but they also gave equal importance to the best use of the space.
Promenade Examples of Japanese Gardens
Katsura Imperial Japanese Garden
Many examples of this type of gardens have been built since the second half of the Edo Period. The oldest extant excursion garden example is the Katsura Emperor Villa. Its construction began in 1620 and was completed in 1659. Made by the great tea master Kobori Enshu. It has incredible beauty in terms of scenery. The pond in the garden is fed from the nearby Katsura creek.
The area around the pond is covered with pathways. Some of these are covered with jumping stones, some with stone pavements, and some with pebbles. Access to 3 islands in the pond is provided by wooden, earth, and stone bridges. Attention was paid to the variety of materials used in the landscape and flooring. To create the effect of surprise, the landscapes are placed in such a way that they disappear and reappear as they walk through the garden.
There are 7 tea houses in the Katsura garden. This garden has been designed to meet many needs. such as aesthetic, spiritual, and recreational needs. Inside a small temple called Onrin-do, various fields for sports; There is a kind of football called kemari and a field for horse riding. The pond is large enough to hold boat parties in it.
There is a platform in front of the palace where the moon can be watched. The palace consists of 3 Shoin buildings. 42,900 grids on a field. Katsura garden set an example for the construction of many gardens later on.
Murin-an Japanese Garden
It is an example of a strolling garden built during the Meiji Period. Due to the absence of traditional plants in Murin-an, it is considered a turning point in the history of the walking gardens in Kyoto. Its construction began in 1893 by Ogawa Jihei and was completed in 1896. The garden has proven itself with its striking details. There is a 3-tier waterfall inside the garden. This waterfall spills into a wide, shallow stream. The mountains to the east can be seen through the trees.
Since the Japanese garden constitutes a world created for religious purposes, the need to integrate with that world, with that cosmos, necessitated the incorporation of the image of these gardens into everyday life. So the Japanese developed a garden art, with some reductions adapted to all kinds of circumstances of their life.
They named the box with a miniature landscape made to be put in a doorway or in a shop.
The small lake with a small redfish was the main element of this composition. The name Ban-kei is rounding, oval or rectangular, measuring 0.90m with 1.20m. porcelain, bronze, and even cement were placed on trays; In them, a real landscape was created by placing dwarf trees and tiny bridges on a backdrop of soaked and molded-painted old newspapers, mud, and sand. The Haka-Niva (miniature garden) is a miniature model of the Japanese garden on a small tray scale.
How to arrange a garden? What is taken into account? We also recommend that you read the detailed article we wrote about it.
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