Geneticists from all over the world intend to carry out hundreds of thousands of genetic analyzes to find out what distinguishes the patients who evolve worse
Since the start of the pandemic, everyone has been wondering why the same virus causes such different reactions. While many people do not even know they are infected, others end up in the ICU, and thousands are dying. Some risk factors are clear: advanced age and suffering from other diseases mean that we buy more ballots to suffer a more serious version of Covid-19, but being young and healthy does not guarantee that we will get rid of it either.
Geneticists have thought that their specialty has a lot to contribute, that the different faces of the disease could be related to genetic variability between some individuals and others, as it is in other diseases. Could it be the same with the new coronavirus? To find out, experts have created The Covid-19 Host Genetics Initiative, an international platform to push forward studies on coronavirus patients and share the results. Knowing whether genes make a patient more vulnerable can be key in prognosis and treatment, and would end up saving many lives.
Of these, there will be 7,000 Spaniards and another 1,000 from the United Kingdom, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Colombia that will serve to identify whether the possible genetic markers found are characteristic of Spain or not. In principle, they will not study the complete genome of each individual but certain markers (what is technically called the ‘complete genome association study’ or GWAS). Later, they will sequence 300 complete genomes to analyze in detail the alterations found.
“When we talk about genes, one thinks of rare diseases or cancer, but all human pathologies are the result of the environment and of the person, and also in viral infections, genetics has a lot to say,” explains Pablo Lapunzina in statements to Teknautas. An individual’s genetic information “can make their response to an infection different and even prevent them from becoming infected.” The case of HIV is well known, especially since in November 2018 a Chinese scientist announced that he had genetically modified human embryos to make them resistant, which is why he was later convicted.
With respect to Covid-19, “we are facing a viral infection that should be banal because of every 100 people, close to 80% are asymptomatic, nor do they find out that they were sick, 10 or 15% feel greasy and only one 5% have a severe illness, so it is clear that the individual response is quite different, “says Pablo Lapunzina.
“Without a doubt, the genetic variants have to do with increased risks or protection against the disease, ” he says, although the answer will probably be very complex, the key will not be in a single gene. Many small differences may explain why some people who come in contact with the virus develop serious illness, while most have flu-like symptoms or not even that. “It is also quite likely that there will be people who will not directly become infected even if they are in contact with the virus because it cannot enter the cells, but this will be more difficult to prove,” he says.
As he explains, there is already some data that indicates that the European population could have a greater predisposition to be attacked by the virus, in particular, “variants in the ACE receptors of cells with respect to Asian populations.” The data says that mortality in China was very low compared to that recorded in Europe and, “apart from the fact that epidemiological policies to control the disease have been different, these receptors are likely to be decisive,” he says.
However, it will take hundreds of thousands of patients to confirm that these subtle genetic differences protect or make people more vulnerable. The international consortium aims to reach 150,000. The problem is to make a balanced and correct selection of the participants. “We need to have people who have been infected and have been asymptomatic, and this must be verified with antibody tests; also to others who have been regular, with fever and few more signs of illness, and others who, in the same situation, have been serious or have died, apparently without risk factors, “he explains.
The healthy young man who ends up in the ICU
All the projects included in The Covid-19 Host Genetics Initiative will provide minimal information that is useful for data sharing, but each one has its own particular characteristics. For example, another Spaniard focuses on patients under the age of 60 without other diseases. Led by the CSIC’s Barcelona Institute for Biomedical Research (IIBB), it will focus on 200 patients waiting to obtain more funding.
“We are interested in all patients, but obviously age and previous pathologies are more vulnerable even to the normal flu, so when doing a genetic study, they could lead us to confusion,” says Anna Planas, coordinator of this study. “In the normal population, there are polymorphisms or genetic variations that normally do not entail any pathology, but in the face of a viral infection, there may be people with a poorer response capacity and we can better identify this factor if we focus the study on people initially healthy ”, he highlights.
Already in the first coronavirus epidemic, the SARS epidemic of 2002-2003, some studies pointed out that having certain polymorphisms could increase the susceptibility to severe forms of the disease. However, they were performed with very few patients and almost primitive genetic tools compared to current means. “This encouraged us to think that with the advances of today, we could further explore this issue,” says the researcher.
In Granada, Marta Alarcón Riquelme, a scientist at the Center for Genomics and Oncology Research (Genyo), also wondered why young and middle-aged people developed bilateral pneumonia that characterizes the worst version of Covid-19 and, in particular, by that in the worst cases an inflammation occurs that complicates the condition of the patients.
The challenge of explaining decisive inflammation
In fact, physicians agree to observe a common characteristic among Covid-19 cases that have evolved poorly. Generally, in a first phase, patients have symptoms that could be assimilated to those of the flu, but after a few days, something goes wrong and the immune system overreacts, causing what is called a ‘cytokine storm’, proteins that they should fight the infection but in this case, they cause an inflammation of the organs, especially the lungs.
“We want to know if there is any type of predisposition that is not clinically evident, inflammatory processes that we can detect in DNA by looking for gene expression markers through what is called methylation, and identify possible genetic associations that tell us about a susceptibility to develop more severe disease, “says Marta Alarcón. For example, “I can have a gene with a variant that causes more cytokines to be produced, so the response is going to be greater.” Therefore, it is not about having or not having a gene, but about quantitative changes.
The key is to compare, among hospitalized patients, those who have a worse evolution with those who better overcome the disease. For this, the Genyo is already recruiting patients and the initial idea is to carry out the study with 1,300 participants, in collaboration with other geneticists from Valladolid, Barcelona, Malaga, and Milan.
Although within the international consortium ” 90% of the groups still do not have data “, because they are looking for patients who can participate, Alarcón regrets the bureaucratic obstacles that have prevented him from speeding up the process. “Unfortunately, I have a limit of 15,000 euros to buy material. From this figure, I have to open a public offer that may take a while and I cannot start at this time because we are with the administrative deadlines closed. ” Meanwhile, “in the United States, they are already ahead.”
The application of the results
With more or less Spanish input, experts are confident that the international consortium as a whole will provide decisive data to fight the new coronavirus and that the results can be applied on several fronts. For example, “if a person becomes ill, with a genetic study we would know in 24 hours if their risk is high or low, and based on that we could decide on their income, their follow-up or even analyze the risk that their relatives run”, Lapunzina comments.
On the other hand, genetic information can also be decisive in treatment. First, in the search for new compounds or drugs that are already on the market and can be reused. On the other, to guide the medication of each patient. In fact, something similar happened until recently with hepatitis C – before new treatments became available – patients’ genetic markers were studied to find out who would respond to available treatments. It was a simple study that cost 16 euros and anticipated the effect of the drugs.
“Today, a patient is admitted and ‘a priori’ it is not possible to know if after four days he will go home or have to be admitted to the ICU, there is nothing that can predict this, ” says Anna Planas. However, after these studies, “in an ideal situation, we would find a key gene and know that people who had some variants of it would be more likely to develop a more serious disease.” The reality will be more complicated, but the CSIC researcher believes that “a test could be carried out on the general population with a drop of blood”, knowing that “if a person has a certain polymorphism, he is part of the population that must be to protect”.
The researcher believes that this could also be revolutionary in relation to epidemiological policies. “At the moment, we are talking theoretically, but if we had the entire population studied, we would know what percentage is at risk,” he says. In this sense, it would be possible to develop an epidemiological strategy that would not go through “blind” confinement like the current one, since “we do not know which are the biomarkers that cause us to pass the infection asymptomatically and which are the ones that cause us to be at serious risk ”, but it could be done much more selectively.
However, not everything will be in the genes. For example, among the population differences, there is the fact that men accumulate many more serious cases and deaths. The researchers do not rule out that massive genetic analyzes give any answer, but they believe that it most likely has nothing to do with it. “There are many variables, men tend to be more overweight, hypertensive, and have diabetes. And surely there is a hormonal factor, it seems that women’s estrogens protect a little more. If you remove all those factors, it is likely that the genetic difference between men and women will not make much difference, “Lapunzina points out.
Based out of NYC, Chris Reynolds has been writing for SYP Studios since 2015 and is presently our Managing Editor. An experienced freelance writer, he previously obtained an English BA from Stockholm University, then spent over 8 years working in various markets as a television reporter, producer and news videographer. Chris is particularly interested in scientific innovation, climate technology, and the marine environment.
Physical Therapy for Knee – Techniques and Exercises for Pain Relief
Physical therapy for knee ache entails a thorough comparison and evaluation of your complete decrease extremity from your hip to your foot. Physical therapy for knee can determine your knee ache and prescribe the proper remedies along with workout routines and modalities to assist reduce your knee ache and enhance your typical mobility.
The human knee is a hinge joint that is comprised of the tibia (shin) and the femur (thigh). The patella, or kneecap, is positioned in the front of the knee. The knee is supported with the aid of four ligaments. Two shock absorbers, every referred to as a meniscus, are located inside the knee.
Pain in the knee can be induced through repetitive trauma and stress or injury. Occasionally it takes place for no apparent reason. When knee ache occurs, you may additionally trip useful boundaries that consist of situation walking, rising from sitting, or ascending and descending stairs.
Knee ache can be a difficult element to tackle, due to the fact the knee is a joint that is nearly continuously in use. Everyday activities like sitting, standing up, walking, and even mountaineering the stairs demand the use of the knees, and aching knees can be unbearable. Thankfully, Physical therapy for knee pain that can assist a lot, and by means of performing a few easy exercises, you can control the ache or even limit it substantially. Here are some methods you can use and workout routines you can do to get remedy from knee pain. Make certain you talk about any workout routines you’re planning to do with your bodily therapist, to make certain that you’re doing the workouts in a way that isn’t damaging. Without further ado, right here are some recommendations for methods and workouts for Physical therapy for knees.
Techniques used to apprehend and relieve knee pain
Evaluating your gait – Assessing how you stroll can assist a bodily therapist recognize if your gait is affecting your knees badly? Sometimes, we inadvertently have a tendency to endure our weight on one of our two ft. whilst walking, inflicting the knee on that facet to take on greater pressure. Be more cautious with your knee joint, if you’re already injured then do not push yourself farther than you want to do.
Palpation method – By feeling the affected knee and the areas around it, a bodily therapist can parent out if there are any abnormalities in the joint. Palpation methods can assist therapists to work out the proper path of therapy for your knees.
Strength and vary of movement measurements – Measuring the vary of action round the joint can assist consider how effortlessly the knee can be bent and straightened. Strength comparison can measure the quantity of muscular weak spots and imbalance round your knee.
Exercises to relieve knee pain
Prone leg raises – This is a wonderful exercising that’s particularly underrated. You’ll commence by way of mendacity on your stomach. Then, tighten the muscle tissue in your backside and your hamstrings and carry your leg upward, except bending the knee. Hold this pose for about 5 seconds earlier than reducing your leg lower back to the preliminary position.
Side leg raises – This is a frequently encouraged workout that can relieve stress from the muscle mass round the knees. Lie on your left side, and stretch your legs out. Lift your proper leg upward barring bending your knee. Raise the leg as tons as you can barring experiencing pain. Repeat this motion on a different side.
Standing calf stretches – The muscle tissues connecting your calves to your knees can once in a while be beneath stress, inflicting your knees to undergo the brunt of the tension. Calf raises carried out in the standing function can assist stretch and loosen these tensed muscles, supplying some alleviation from knee ache that’s associated to these issues.
Stationary bike – If you’re eager on enhancing the vary of action on your knee joint, exercising on a stationary bike can be a useful activity. Remember to go at a tempo that isn’t painful, and to make positive that your legs don’t cross sideways when they bend. It can be handy to get distracted and lose focal point halfway. So, attempt and listen on the activity.
Additional help in the structure of warm and bloodless packs can additionally show to be very beneficial in relieving knee pains. If your knee ache is chronic, your therapist will likely advocate you to go to a doctor, due to the fact you can also want scans to recognize the motive of the problem. Once the purpose is established, your bodily therapist will discover it simpler to decide the proper approach and workout routines to heal the problem, and your medical doctor will understand whether or not surgical treatment will be needed.
How does physical therapy for knee arthritis work?
After inspecting your knee, the physical therapist will work with you to make a cure format that suits your genuine hassle and your needs. The dreams can consist of decreasing your ache and swelling and growing your flexibility, strength, balance, and endurance.
Physical Therapy for Knee include:
Manual therapy. Manual therapy consists of rubdown and manipulation.
Ultrasound. This makes use of sound waves to deal with muscle spasms and pain.
Electrical stimulation. This makes use of a slight electrical modern-day to deal with pain.
He or she may also additionally use warmth and bloodless and may additionally educate you how to use these techniques.
A Word from Very well
The knee is an important joint in the physique that is accountable for walking, hiking stairs, and rising from a seated position. Pain in the knee can restrict one or all of these activities. By working with your bodily therapist and via preserving the knee joint cellular and strong, troubles with knee ache might also be avoided, and your mobility can be maintained.
Physical therapy for Knee nearly continually consists of exercise. It can encompass stretching, doing core exercises, constructing strength, and walking. You may additionally study workout routines that assist in shocking ways—strong core and hip muscle groups can assist manipulate knee aches and make you extra in a position to be active. Your therapist will additionally train your workouts that you can do at home.
Some sorts of Physical therapy for Knee may additionally reason soreness, or even swelling. If it bothers you, be certain to inform your therapist.
Nichole Kerr is a reporter for SYP Studios. Sarah has previously worked for Wired, MacWorld, PCWorld, and VentureBeat covering countless stories concerning all things related to tech and science. Nichole studied at Anthem Institute in Las Vegas.
Hip-Hop Celebs Who Had Plastic Surgery, from LA To Denver To NYC
If you can make something on your body look better, then why not do it!
That is the motto most women and men in the entertainment industry are going by. And true to this motto, some Hip-Hop artists have come out looking better and feeling more confident in their artistry.
A lot of people in the world today are open to breast and buttocks surgery in addition to facelifts, liposuctions, nose jobs, and even hip enhancements, among many more. Hip-hop celebs happen to be in the limelight and hence, new changes are spotted the moment they hit the red carpet.
Want to find out if your favorite rapper has had something done? Read on to find out.
The New York female rapper has been known to be very vocal about her life and holds nothing back. If it bothers her, you will know. Heard of the new parody going round with a lady shouting ‘coronavirus,’ well then that might as well be our beloved Cardi B.
Belcalis Marlenis Almanzar, aka Cardi B, was raised in South Bronx, and before hitting stardom, she did a couple of odd jobs to survive. One of those jobs was a clerk, and the most known career that put her on a map was being a stripper. Soon after she took to TV on Love and Hip Hop: New York edition, then shorty dropped her hits ‘Bodak Yellow’ and ‘I Like It,’ which saw her rise quickly on the billboards.
The artist has had her breast augmentation, implants in her butt, and, most recently, liposuction [more here]. The lipo took a toll on her as she had to miss a few concerts and bookings, but we have to admit, she looks pretty amazing with her new flat tummy.
Yet another NYC product who has been under the knife is Nicki Minaj, although she denies it.
Most will agree that the transformation was worthwhile. And if you take a look at Nicki’s before and after picture, you can see the work she has had done. For starters, she has had breast and buttocks surgery that is undeniably flawless. Secondly, she has allegedly has had a nose job back in 2009, tooth surgery, butt implants, boob job, and most recently botox.
This list is quite something. Regardless Nicki looks stunning and feels great about her body telling by her choice of clothing — she wants to show it all irrespective of what the tabloids say.
One of the oldest Hip-Hop artists we have in the industry is Lil Kim, and this list would not have been complete without her.
The star has had a few standard procedures like the plastic surgery Denver Coloradans tend to get. These are breast enhancements, rhinoplasty, and facelifts. She denies all operations, but let’s be real, even your skin cannot jump shades lighter unless something is done. And also, boobs do not just grow out of the blues; the knife must have had a role to play!
Her makeovers are, however, speculating a bit of traction that she is perhaps taking it a little too far. With the skin lightening and some things seeming off, plastic surgeons in Atlanta and elsewhere could take one look at her and know something is off. But she still denies it firmly.
All in all, we cannot deny that the star seems happy with her new look, irrespective of what people are saying.
Nikk Minaj nemesis, Remy Ma, also happens to make it to this list. She also made a small screen showing on the Love and Hip Hop: New York.
This was after serving time and coming out looking better than never before.
She came out looking lean and toned out but still rocking her signature colored wigs. Nikki Minaj was the one who created the speculations that Remy Ma might have had some work done on herself, but to date, no pictures can prove it. Regardless, she still makes to this list such that when those pictures finally get here, you already got the news.
We had to include at least one guy on this list to even the playing ground. Yes, men can also go under the knife, and Kanye admitted to having done so during an interview with TMZ.
Kanye had liposuction done on his body that gave him a sturdy frame. He simply did not want people to call him fat as they did to his brother-in-law at his wedding. His surgery was successful, but the aftermath left him addicted to opioids that he also admitted in the interview. But he has fully recovered from it.
This is not an isolated case, as thousands of opioid addicts started right after plastic surgery. Plastic surgeons in Atlanta and all over America, therefore, prescribe the drug with more caution nowadays.
Husband to Kim sure looks good in his new body and is not ashamed of owning it.
People have been doing whatever makes them happy since time immemorial, and so if you desire to get your nose fixed or your butt lifted, then why not! You only have one life to live. So do it and do it right.
Membrane filters you need to know and their properties
Membrane filters or commonly known as “membranes” are microporous membranes with specific pore size ratings. It is also called a sieve, microporous filter, or screen. Cellulose acetate membrane filter preserves or filter particles bigger than the pore size. If there are particles slighter than the pore size, other mechanisms will be used. There are different types of membrane filters, such as nylon, cellulose acetate, mixed cellulose ester, or MCE membrane filters. Here are more membrane filter types and their attributes.
The mixed cellulose ester
MCE is composed of cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose. It has a high porosity and can provide a higher flow rate. It also has a high level of protein binding, which can be prohibited by pretreatment or application. MCE is a standard membrane that can be used in many laboratory applications, such as filtration and sterilization of biological fluids, pollution analysis, microbiology, and air monitoring. The membrane is able to be converted into transparent to view the particles collected during the filtration process.
coated cellulose acetate consists of cellulose acetate cast on a non-woven polyester carrier. It has a non-fiber releasing ability, and the protein binding level associated with nitrocellulose is low. It also has a low level of static charge and chemically enhances compatibility with low molecular weight alcohols. The coated cellulose acetate is used as a pre-filter or clarification filter.
Hydrophilic PTFE has characteristics described as having the greatest resistance to chemicals and pH. The membrane has a high level of flow rate and almost no water-extractable. When the membrane is wetted with water, it is transparent to the naked eye, so it is very suitable for use in HPLC, organic solvents, and other aqueous mixtures.
PTFE The characteristic of hydrophobic PTFE is that it has a high porosity is very thin and behaves like a monolithic retention membrane. It also has a passive effect on most corrosive chemical solvents, alkalis, and strong acids. The membrane traps water-containing aerosols by sterilizing the gas. It is also used for gas and air discharge so that gas can freely pass through the membrane, and at the same time prohibit liquid from entering. This protects the best samples and vacuum pumps. In addition, hydrophobic PTFE clarifies and sterilizes strong acids and other solvents that are incompatible with other membrane filters.
nylon membrane filters are made by impregnating polyester fiber webs with polymers made of nylon. This makes the membrane durable, heat-resistant, and essentially hydrophilic. Because it is hydrophilic, it is suitable for alcohol and aqueous samples. The membrane filter can be used to sterilize, filter, and clarify organic aqueous solutions.
The membrane filter is composed of diacetate and cellulose triacetate. It is characterized by high strength and low electrostatic charge. The advantage of using it is that it can be repeatedly disinfected without losing its integrity or changing its bubble point. Associated with MCE membrane filters in stipulations of their solvent confrontation to alcohol molecular weight increase at low levels. Cellulose acetate is used to enhance the recovery of positive organisms and filter enzyme solutions. It is also used for cytological diagnosis and receptor binding research.
Bryan Nesbit has been writing and editing at SYP Studios for over two years, where he has covered everything from rocket launches to self-driving cars to strange animal science, and everything in between. He previously spent time at the Huffington Post, Mashable and The Santiago Times, earning a Masters degree in communications fromPace University along the way. When not working on his next piece, you might find Nolan traveling the world in search of the weird and wonderful. Failing that, he’ll probably be watching Netflix.
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