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Rapid production of porous cellulose acetate membrane for water filtration using readily available chemicals

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Abstract

We describe a chemistry lab experiment using everyday elements and readily available chemicals to introduce porous polymer membranes to high school and college students. The principle of membrane filtration is illustrated by filtering solutions containing watercolor pigments or food coloring, while the food coloring is completely soluble in water and easily passes through the membrane. . The laboratory experiment can be performed in a 2 hour activity and is intended to (1) expose students to an exciting new field of materials science. He familiarizes them with porous membranes for the production of drinking water and presents them with a model elimination technique that uses the acid / base theory. In Switzerland, 52 high school students and 55 high school teachers have already successfully completed the laboratory experience and found the activity interesting and motivating.

 

introduction

Importance of safe drinking water

Access to clean and safe drinking water remains a global problem. In developing countries, around 80% of diseases are linked to poor water and sanitation conditions. Among the most common health risks of unclean drinking water are water-borne illnesses caused by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites. In a comprehensive study, Bain and colleagues examined the microbial quality of drinking water and estimated that approximately 1.8 billion people worldwide use a source of drinking water contaminated with E. coli or other bacteria. thermotolerant coliforms (TTC).

Various approaches, with their inherent advantages and disadvantages, have been studied for eliminating microorganisms linked to waterborne diseases. The portable water purification devices currently in use include systems based on ultra and microfiltration membranes, ceramic filters, activated carbon filters or chemical halogen disinfection. The disadvantages of the most efficient systems are, in general, their complex installation and their periodic maintenance, which leads to high operating costs and, consequently, makes these systems unsuitable for developing countries. In addition, many point-of-use treatment devices are not effective against all possible contaminants. Therefore, new water treatment technologies are being explored.

Water quality issues are an integral part of many high school chemistry courses, and various experiments have been developed as educational laboratory procedures. Water filtration experiments for the removal of nanomaterials have already been described and a laboratory experiment comparing various biochemical separation technologies (including filtration) has been presented. The experience presented here differs from previous approaches in that the filtering device itself (a porous membrane) is made by students from standard materials, then its separation performance is tested.

Cellulose Acetate Membrane for Water Filtration

In this article, we describe a laboratory experiment to produce a cellulose acetate membrane filter for drinking water which, in its production stages, resembles the commercially available water filter, but which is accomplished using everyday items such as a kitchen blender, glass dishes, rulers and chemicals readily available. The entire experiment can be performed in a 2 hour laboratory exercise. Supporting information for this article includes a student brochure and instructor notes for conducting the classroom experience (approximately 20 to 40 students). The production of membranes is based on the addition of calcium carbonate to a solution of cellulose acetate dissolved in acetone. Glycerol is also added to the reaction mixture and acts as a pore spacer. The polymer solution is then mixed using a kitchen mixer, and the resulting dispersion is spread on a glass plate using a stainless steel ruler. After evaporation of the solvent in ambient air, the calcium carbonate and glycerol particles are washed from the polymer matrix in an acid bath and then rinsed in a water bath.

Functional test of the membrane using watercolor and food coloring

Students test the performance of the membrane obtained with a solution of watercolor and food coloring. Although, when mixed with water, both give colored water, the color of the food used is a water-soluble dye, and watercolor is a dispersion of pigments, with particles between 40 and 80 µm in size. The watercolor solution based on pigments is first passed through the membrane. Then the filtration is repeated with the food coloring solution. In both cases, students are invited to record their observations. The experiments with the two solutions are then repeated with a standard filter for a Buchner funnel.

Procedure

Equipment and chemicals

The experiment uses the infrastructure and materials available in a university-level chemistry laboratory (see Information on teaching support and notes to students), as well as certain additions, which can be easily obtained:

• Kitchen mixer with at least 800 W of power (eg Philips HR 2195/04)

• Mirror or glass plate (148 × 210 mm2 or larger area)

•           Tape

• Ruler with stainless steel edge or aluminum profile.

• Two plastic tanks for dilute hydrochloric acid and a double boiler.

• Cellulose acetate (Sigma-Aldrich n ° 180955)

• Calcium carbonate (Sigma-Aldrich No. 21069)

• Watercolor (for example, Artists Loft Fundamentals watercolor pans set on amazon.com)

• Food coloring (for example bright blue FCF E133)

Preparation of a solution of cellulose acetate polymer

Preparation of the cellulose acetate dispersion

All of the cellulose acetate membrane filter was transferred to a kitchen mixer. Then, 41 g of calcium carbonate and 17.6 g of glycerol were added, and the suspension was stirred for 3 minutes in the highest setting of the kitchen mixer. The dispersion was placed in a new 250 ml Schott bottle and closed to limit evaporation of the solvent. The kitchen mixer was immediately filled with water to precipitate the remaining dispersion and the polymer waste was deposited in household waste.

Removal of calcium carbonate particles

To remove the calcium carbonate particles, a plastic container was filled with 5 L of water and another container with 5 L of hydrochloric acid (0.24 M). The mirror plate containing the membrane sheet was then immersed in the hydrochloric acid bath. The membrane sheet was released from the mirror plate, and gas bubbles indicated the removal of the calcium carbonate particles. After 10 minutes, the membrane sheet was transferred to the container containing only water and washed for an additional 5 minutes. Finally, the membrane sheet was removed from the water bath and placed on a cloth. Another kitchen towel was used to dry the membrane.

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How AXO Talent Turns Dreams Into Reality

Chris Rynolds

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Blake Dalessio is that the founding father of AXO Talent, a flexible media production, digital marketing, and talent consulting agency that focuses on producing engaging content, establishing marketing solutions, and guiding ambitious visionaries. Alpha X Official believes in pursuing a career that involves doing what you’re keen on professionally, and designing a replacement thanks to live. A movement that gives a way of hope & inspiration for misfits out there who want to show their dreams into a reality. Since the launch in 2017, AXO Talent has helped over 1000 alphas globally, and continues to constantly improve annually with new adaptations. After all, becoming an alpha means continuously becoming the simplest version of yourself.

Blake Dalessio may be a skilled Director, Editor, Writer, Cinematographer, Artist, Actor, Model, Designer, Talent Consultant, Brand Architect, Marketing Expert, Project Manager, Networking Liaison, Web Developer, Massage Therapist, Sales Expert, Travel Connoisseur, Life Coach, Philosopher, Sociologist, Philanthropist, and self-proclaimed Chef. AXO Talent focuses in personal branding, media production, digital marketing, graphic design, creative direction, business communications, e-commerce, talent consulting, online education, brand development, project management, event coordination, and travel counseling. With top of the road equipment & over 10+ years of experience producing professional media, they will confidently deliver top quality content for nearly any project. Delivering engaging social first content is one among the foremost impactful sorts of media when executing a digital marketing campaign.

Additionally, this past year they need evolved by introducing three new sections of AXO Talent also . AXO Global provides international travel experiences alongside our talent. Alpha University is an academic video platform that teaches aspiring young visionaries the essentials of becoming a baron . It teaches the supplemental skills necessary to pursuing a career path within the media, marketing, and talent industry. Students that graduate get the prospect of becoming an alpha within the AXO Talent pack once they show they’re able to level up professionally by passing an exam. Lastly, they need introduced the “Alphas” podcast, shop, and community. The mission at AXO Talent is to spread global awareness that there’s a replacement thanks to live.

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The Sad And Scary Truth About Instagram, Your Online Business Is Not Safe!

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Jackson O’Doherty, a prominent social media figure and a comedian with millions of fans worldwide, recently published a YouTube video revealing how Instagram removed his account. His account, with over four million people, was removed from their platform without any previous warning. In a half an hour long video, the Australian star dealt blow after blow of solid proof against the hypocrisy of the social media giant.

“First of all, don’t expect this to be an overly emotional rant about a poor Instagram influencer playing a victim.  I am not being irrational, and I know that the world is crazy right now, with COVID 19 being just one of the difficulties. It’s not about the number of followers on my account. It is about the platform itself. I have been very blessed in my life, and even though I have just lost four million followers and money from sponsored deals, the world is not ending. I want to address something far more important than my loss. The reality that for millions of creators, Instagram is no longer a safe platform to invest their money or their time in,” claimed O’Doherty. It’s a pretty bold claim, however, he backed it up with proof. Looking at the evidence, one cannot look at them but wonder how Instagram is still considered a safe space for all audiences.

After the evidence he presented, Instagram is starting to look more like a whimsical, non-transparent organization full of favoritism and inconsistency. It is beginning to look more similar to a high school clique than a professional business company.

If Instagram was a bank

Let’s just say that we are lucky that Instagram is not a bank. Judging by their behavior, if they were a bank, they would have the right to revoke your mortgage, kick you out of your house and still take your money and never call you back again.

Many people who are not that familiar with social media might find this analogy a bit exaggerated, but as O’Doherty explained, “It is not just an Instagram account. It is a platform for a project that accepted your time and investment and made money through your effort. Then, they just destroyed something that supports your family without any warning.”

Instagram and Facebook act as a corporation. They are earning an unprecedented amount of money out of ordinary people like Jackson, yet they provide almost no explanation when they take away someone’s livelihood. When they ask for your money to promote ads, they pretend to be a professional company, yet when you ask them about your funds, they simply disappear.

Double standards

The comedian’s claims were not some vague complaints of a wronged man, nor was this a heated rant. O’Doherty took out his phone and calmly started telling a story. A story that needs to be told before anyone else gets used by this platform to earn money from their content – just to be spat out when they no longer appeal to a random employee.

“So, here’s what happened. An Instagram employee named Zack holds a personal grudge against me. He constantly punishes me for the things I do, which are the same things that the very people he is following are doing daily.  I’m not a saint, but I am not as half as bad as the very people he is following. He doesn’t do anything about it, and they get away with it, but my account gets removed in the end,” states the star.

A but, a bus, and a broken integrity

“The double standards I’m talking about here have happened to many creators, many of which are my friends. I’m not being emotional, I’m being rational. I have invested my money and time for six years, building up my following just to get removed for something not even specified. This isn’t just about me. It’s about privilege and hypocrisy. Naked girls are favored. People get away with posting violence and gore. Kim Kardashian can probably get away with killing a person, live on Instagram, and it would still show up in the Explore feed. But, if I and my girlfriend kiss on a video, just a peck on the lips – it gets removed,” said Jackson, showing screenshots of posts where a famous woman is naked from the waist down, another popular girl is flaunting the outlines of her vagina in a transparent bikini, and a bunch of men who are sporting their beach bodies with the focus on their naked behinds. 

This turned out to be just a warm-up. Instagram not only allowed for these photos to stay on the platform, but almost all of them had thousands of likes, comments, and a huge reach.

Gore and violence were also rampant. A video of a woman being run over by a bus and a photo of a man who lost half of his face in a bear attack are still visible to everyone, including children on the platform. Jackson showed us footage of a man being beaten to death, that is still on Instagram while asking a logical question – posting a man’s death is allowed, but comedy isn’t?

When business is allowed to become personal

O’Doherty emphasized that his problem was not just a random act by an unknown algorithm, but that his issue had a first name and last name. And apparently – a plan.

“The man I previously mentioned, named Zack, deliberately targeted my accounts. On one occasion, he removed one of my accounts, claiming that I breached community standards. I ended up explaining to him the very guidelines that he was supposed to explain to me. He ended up returning my account after I proved him wrong,” states the comedian. However, it turns out that the Instagram employee hasn’t given up on making Jackson’s life worse. He was repeatedly flagged for the smallest of things until his account was removed – without a word of notice by, you guessed it – by Zack.

A message for Instagram 

“The most valuable currency that no one can take back is time. The most important part of any company is integrity. If Instagram can’t guarantee that they can respect that, they are not a professional company. I would like for people on Facebook and Instagram to see this because I think it’s essential for all current and future creators. I would love to have my account back as it was more than just a profile. It was a way for me to support my family, and a tool to make this world a better place.

I was donating money regularly to different causes, such as Go Fund Me pages, Australian bushfires relief, Black lives matter project, etc. I was also working on a mental health app that would help people who are going through a hard time. I used to openly raise awareness about my mental problems and hoped that I could use my example to help people who are struggling. Now, thanks to Instagram, I can no longer do that.

 

If a company wants you to invest your time and money on their platform, you should feel safe doing so. Right? I’m not asking for better treatment; I’m asking to be treated the same. Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter have opened up so many opportunities for people all around the world. It is time to own up to what that means for every single one of them,” stated Jackson.

Whether you like his comedy or the concept of social media, one thing is certain. When it comes to money, there must be consistency, transparency, and a guarantee that a system that takes billions from people and uses them to make a profit, needs to have a system that ensures that its users and their investments are safe. Otherwise – it’s a scam with a fancy filter.

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Why You Need To Look Out For Alexander “Axlek” Weber

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Alexander Weber started his Social Media Journey in 2012 and grew in quality since then

His main Social Network is Instagram wherever he shares his life and specialized himself in high-Quality footage of himself and his way

His way includes Traveling, Adventures, Styling, and everything around that.

A Discussion with German Model Axlek On, however, He Deals together with his Greatest Struggles

My Name is Alexander Weber additionally referred to as Axle. I used to be born in 1995 within the town of Bielefeld, Germany. I’m presently operating as a Model and Influencer on Instagram. I worked within the Photography business the opposite hand again found my Passion on the other aspect of the Camera.

What provides you energy?

I try and appreciate all the nice things like I’m never aiming to expertise them once more. I do know that sounds quite tousled however you’ll additionally describe it by appreciating the items as you expertise it for the primary time. That and meaty talks.

What’s your secret life hack?

Share your feelings and worries with Friends and Family. Don’t allow them to eat you up. Mental state and Health normally before the rest.

What is your greatest challenge expertise and the way did you overcome it?

At the age of thirteen, my father kicked the bucket. it absolutely was a tough time on behalf of me and my mother. We tend to help one another out overcoming it and are currently nearer than ever. I might most likely not stand wherever I’m these days if that tragic event didn’t happen. It considerably formed ME in who I’m these days.

At what time you felt burned out and why?

I really love what I this there is terribly read times I actually feel down. Generally, I purchase lost within the Numbers. Followers, Engagement Rate, Business Deals, Money, and so on. I even have to urge myself out of that state as before long as the potential to not worry regarding those things. as a result of if you are worried, it’ll show needless to say.

When was the last time you felt you unsuccessful and the way did you overcome it?

It most likely was one thing on the lines of the last answer. to stress regarding Numbers is like worrying if it’s aiming to rain. It’s pointless. no matter however arduous you are attempting numbers can fluctuate and if you’re feeling down when the Numbers go down you may lose. You have got to continually try and keep your head within the game and not within the Numbers all the time. There are limits to it.

Share a quote that you just love which provides you strength or peace.

“..You can fail at what you don’t wish. You may, also take an opportunity to do what you love.

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